The Power of Music

In society today con often pose to be therapy for people going through a hard time. In my life music can serve as a distraction from problems, unless it possesses some meaning to a situation that is going on. The song Heaven (Little by Little) by Theory of a Deadman talks about the pain of losing something or someone. It helped me to see that the pain and confusion of losing someone is hard to go through, but there are people that can help you through it. There is never a right time for anything bad to happen, but it is inevitable and the timing may not be good, but you have to learn to roll with the punches. With each day that passes I find myself wishing that the people I love were here, only to quickly realize that we are more than miles apart. With each day that passes, I can only come to find myself wishing that life was back to the simple place it used to be when I was a kid, only to later realize that those were two very different times. Songs such as ones like this pose as a way out of a problem, and provide inspiration for me to move on in life.
The song Heaven (Little by Little) is reflective and mellow. It looks on what life is like and what good there was to remember, and forget all the bad. There is a certain calmness to the song that sooths and makes you forget the bad. It calms the anger or sadness that comes from losing something. It allows for clarity and some distance from the problem. In listening to the song I learned that it is the good memories that are worth keeping, while the bad ones drag you into the darkness. In looking back in life remembering the good times that I had and holding onto those thoughts allow for life to continue. Every memory that is carried around should bear meaning to it and be worth remembering. The song makes it feel like it is okay to remember and miss something or someone, but there is a time to move on. The song gives advice on what to do when dealing with difficult times, and helps to move on in life.
In listening to the song one of the major themes can that can be seen is strength. In tough situations strength can only be seen in how well I could hold it together. ??? You got me through the days/ when I though I couldn??™t face it/??¦ you??™ll get stronger,??? reminded me of how my little cousin during the death of my grandfather told me it was not strength in muscles that mattered, but rather the strength of your heart and your mind. She told me that over time it would be easier to be strong, and that all the pain would go away eventually. Life is already extremely hard already, but if I were to just sit back and let it eat away at me, than how I am supposed to be an example of strength for those younger than me. The lines in the song inspired me to stay strong not only for me, but for others around me. In getting over the pain faster than others, allowed for me to help others get to the same place. It takes strength for someone in pain to hold on for you, but it takes even more strength to let that same person go, but it doesn??™t mean that you loved them any less.
The song taught me that by letting someone go does not mean that you love them any less as a person; it means that you loved them enough to have wanted what was best for them. In one line of the song it says ???the love we have you can??™t replace??? and I know that no matter what comes along and who I say that I love, will never be able to replace my love for my family. The love that I have for my family is unconditional love; it is something that can not be replaced by an object, or a fling. No matter how far the distance is between us, be it heaven or earth my love will always be there to conquer the distance and control the pain. No matter what type of pain it is, love can always make it go away, whether it is a simple hug to make you forget something that hurts, or taking a person out of their misery, it is only for the well being of that person. Even when times are hard, love just sees the good there is to be seen.
When the world gives you lemons make lemonade, but unless you add sugar it is going to be sour. There is always something good to come out of the bad. If you see something as always bad then you just have to remember the good time and the situation is no longer so bad. ???There??™s a little piece of heaven/ Right where you are??? shows that in the tough situations there is always a piece of heaven to be seen. In my life my uncle was my angel right smack in the middle of hell. Although we were in a hospital he would power through the pain to make sure that everyone else was taken care of. So selfless all the time it didn??™t matter that he was not the same person that he was before, he just cared that all his younger siblings were well taken care of. To see that although he was in the worst situation ever and made the best out of it was more of a lesson, than I could have ever learned from a text book.
It is through the simplest things that I have learned the most. Through this song, I have found my way back to a somewhat normal life. Through the beat I have found my way to calmness, and through the lyrics I have found the inspiration and the motivation to move on. The power is a showcase of strength, and love, lessons, and optimism. To have gone through so much and listen to a song like Heaven (little by Little) makes me start to think that the world has something good in it, and it is not all bad. With each word that is spoken makes each day easier to go through. Music is the best therapy there is to drown out a problem or to help to make a person feel better.

Works Cited
“THEORY OF A DEADMAN LYRICS – Heaven (Little By Little).” A-Z Lyrics Universe. Web. 25 Apr. 2010. .

The Power of Journeys

Can a journey be seen as just a distance traveled Or is there a greater meaning beyond each step that is taken We are so caught up with the destination that we neglect to appreciate the process that gets us there, the excitement and exhilaration of an unpredictable journey and the things we learn from both the negatives and the positives that we are faced with. Journeys take us to many different places, but more important are the people we encounter along the way, and the experiences we possess. Journeys have the ultimate power to change our thinking, our ideas and concepts, inevitably changing us individually. We look into two selected poems by Robert Gray ???Journey: The North Coast??™ and ???The Estates??™, a recount written by Amanda Jones ???One Night in the Sahara??™ and lastly a ???The Everyday Man??™, a cartoon by Michael Leunig, to discover what each has to say, and the effect it has over us.

Journey: The North Coast is a poem based on going from an alienated world and returning back to the familiar, where the persona feels he belongs. The composer, Robert Gray, throws the audience straight into a vivid sense of immediacy, ???Next thing??™ implies that there has been a previous journey, one that us, as the audience hasn??™t experienced with him. The strong verbs throughout the poem, ???booms??™, ???cracks??™, ???swing??™, all show the constant sense of the present.

As the persona takes the audience further into the story, we read about his views towards the train, that has become his home for quite some time, and the way he contrasts it with the natural beauty of outside the train. It mentions the sunlight rotating, giving a feel of warmth and being comfortable, but connects it to the ???drab carpet??™, as it the sunlight reflects it. Gray effectively uses visual imagery all throughout his poem to help us be involved in the journey. ???It tears the wind apart??™, conveys movement, speed and that the physical journey is going somewhere, the traveling, and the idea of a destination. Each stage in life is a journey. We have to change and evolve, to cope, when we find ourselves at different stages in life.

While at the beginning of the poem, it mainly focuses on auditory and tactile, it soon turns into a strikingly visual poem, contrasting the dark and coldness of the inside of the train, and describing the brightness of the day. The poem advances, and the water, ???sways, solidly in its silver basin, so cold???, as if it were a single item, and the visual effect, of ???silver???, has connotations of brightness, comparing it to ???bright crockery days that belong to so much I remember???, the past is lifted into the movement of the present, as if ???crockery???, indicates an idealized past, with its implications of freshness, domesticity and intimacy. A sense of security, warmth and nostalgia are shown. Journey: North Coast is discussing the appreciation for the natural environment outside the train, we will reminisce appreciation for nature in The Estates.

The persona, now ???rested??? by sleep and his vivid sensual perceptions, orders his belongings, implicating the departure from the train. He ???leaves his hair/ruffled that way???, as he abandons the neatness of city life once arriving in the country. An immediate sense of relief is shown when the persona realizes of his new-found sense of release and freedom. With satisfaction and fulfillment, he presses down the latches on his suitcase, as if it is an event he has wanted to fulfill for some time. A journey us from the unfamiliarity of city life, the alienated back to the familiar, the secure It is evident that he is glad and relieved to have arrived to the familiar, to return to his life, to home.

The estates, a physical journey, yet essences of an ethical and emotional journey are apparent. It causes you to reassess your values and see that we are ultimately powerless.

The Estates focuses on the process of urban sprawl, a phenomenon, which we as Australians can identify with, and pushes us to question ourselves, are material possessions really important in life The vanishing landscape, looking across the paddocks only a ???few??? trees remain, due to mankind destroying the natural vegetation. Images from the nature are juxtaposed with those from the built environment, ???clouds bloom??? amongst ???ledger rulings???, we see a clear sense of loss here and we reassess the importance of these estates. The bold metaphor, ???Billboards grow wild??? suggests to us the only things which flourish are man made.

The homes with the estates are sterile and lack individuality, conveyed through the adjectives, ???blank???, ???cleared??? and ???dry???. We consider, forcefully, the changing values of our society. When discussing the built environment, Gray uses a cold tone, to show his dislike for it. Further on in the journey, the persona travels through identical streets, and we see how much the persona dislikes the place, ???Ostentation is the estates ugliness???, conveys the awful truth about these overly perfected houses. The changes introduced are clearly not welcomed, and Gray positions us to view them negatively. Change is cyclical, the suburban estates have altered the natural landscape, yet nature??™s forces cannot be tamed.

You may ask how this is a journey, the journey past these houses is something that we have all undertaken and that these places are everywhere. The Estates reflects a change in our views, conveying the importance of preserving the natural landscape and provokes our thinking towards the consequences of our effect on the environment.

What we learn on a journey might not be immediately evident, but become clear later on, and we may continue to learn from this journey after it is complete. Everyday we overcome minor life experiences, we wake up, we eat breakfast, and we go to work. Does this seem like an average day in your life It may, but it??™s because we fail to see the unobvious beauty of the little journeys. If time is passing and we??™re undertaking activities, no matter how straight forward, it must be a journey right

The Everyday man follows the life of an ordinary man, and explores the various journeys that comprise our normal day, no matter how mundane. The persona seems somewhat sarcastic, ???the first cup of tea is precarious and immensely sad, it requires courage???, the composer conveys this through a mock tone and strong use of hyperbole.

The text elevates the character, ???Mr. Curly??™ and his journey to heroic proportions, as the mock heroic tone of the journey that ???requires courage??? is seen as a ???glorious, triumphant journey???, can be viewed by some as an attempt to ridicule and undermine the simplicity and foreseen ways that journeys can have on the individual. Leunig conveys strength, stubbornness and courage of Mr. Curly as he encounters struggles and obstacles. The text shows us that even simple journeys require inner strength.

The Everyday man contrasts with the kinds of journeys that are usually appreciated, ones with immense proportions and difficult obstacles, and we easily ignore and undermine the simplicity of an everyday journey.

There are a range of clear, forceful adjectives used, – ???precarious, erratic, serious???, conveying the difficulties encountered at the ???desk???, a symbol of work and responsibility. It is apparent throughout the cartoon that Mr. Curly is at times experiencing uneasiness and despair, his facial expressions and body language conveys this. We then see visual symbols of flowers, musical notes, hearts and birds, and Mr. Curly??™s reflective and calm posture, strongly contrasts to his previous encounters that were viewed as negative. The six distinct linear cells portray the millstones in the daily journey. The experiences contained in each cell change radically, showing peacefulness and serenity, to then conveying confrontation and despair. The text being written in an informal font, replicating average handwriting, reflects the ordinary nature of the everyday journey. Here, we see that the hyperbolic language creates a deliberately exaggerated and dramatic tone that contrasts sharply to the simple actions of Mr. Curly and while it provides a humorous tone, it nonetheless conveys the philosophical perspective on his everyday journey.

Like Journey: The North Coast, the Everyday man is a physical journey. One that questions our thoughts towards ourselves. Journey: the North Coast challenges our thinking towards returning to the familiar, while the everyday man is the familiar, and teaches us to appreciate the simplistic journeys that we encounter.

This text challenged my assumptions about journeys and caused me to reflect upon the importance to the everyday, ordinary journey of each individual, suggesting that these journeys deserve recognition, as without these smaller, seen as insignificant journeys, where would the momentum be in life The cumulative passing of everyday propels us on our journey through the ultimate experience, Life.

Journeys teach us unexpected things about ourselves and others, in this text we are about to explore, the physical journey combined with an emotional and intellectual journey that teaches us about our limitations, strengths and weaknesses. One Night in the Sahara, a recount by Amanda Jones, effectively displays this teaching us that unexpected detours teach us the most.

There is an immense use of descriptive language and visual imagery used throughout the poem, to portray the power of journeys. It creates an atmosphere of beauty and romance, appropriate to the exotic location. The personification elevates the scene; the ???moon??? is ???hovering???, the ???milky way??? being described and ???luminous???. This also highlights the obstacles faced as the landscape was metaphorically ???brutally rigid??? and ???blisteringly hot???. The use of these techniques helps us to empathize with the persona. The strong use of first person strongly evokes the emotions, feelings and experiences that Jones faced and the adjustments made. ???The desert seemed radiant and beckoning and I was overjoyed???, First person is repeated to ensure that we feel empathy for the dilemma that the journey had lead her into. The conversational tone adds to the authenticity we feel of the experience and is then engaging to us.

Contrast is effectively used to convey the change from comfort to discomfort, ???flat and stony???, ???I had left no trail???, these short sentences and harshly emotive words replace the positive connotations of the ???sky was inky???. Jones uses anecdote to portray her helplessness in the foreign situation, the journey having removed her from her cultural texts, the familiarity. ???And so I had broken the cardinal rule of the desert???, here we relate to her sense of western superiority. We are wrong however, how can we be seen as superior, opposed to the cultural tribes, the Wodaabe people, who know their land backwards ???It was his knowledge I now needed, my own modern skills having proved useless???, conveys the balance between the two humans, she is overwhelmed by his knowledge and appreciates the kindness of the man, and we become aware that in the world we often become dependent on the kindness of others.

One night in the Sahara connects to the other texts I have discussed as they are all examples of physical journeys, yet contain pieces of major emotional journeys, teaching us essential life lessons. Journey: North Coast and One night in the Sahara both start in an unfamiliar context, and the personas in each text learn to appreciate where they feel secure. One night in the Sahara shows us that we must adapt to the behavior and values of the cultures we visit.

A journey has the ability to be a transformative experience that will alter our perception and illuminate our understanding of the world and our place within it. The power of this journey is immense; it teaches Jones and us, the audience, that we must reassess our views of the world and its values when being faced with such journeys. Impulsive journeys can contain unexpected obstacles which challenge us physically and emotionally. The consequent adoptions made to unexpected events can be valuable in learning about yourself.

Journeys. Whether they have a significant meaning or not, they have an extraordinary power to alter and motivate us, change our thoughts and feelings, they evoke us to reassess our beliefs and values and they ultimately tell us different things about the world, the people around us, and even more importantly ourselves. Journeys don??™t have to be major, they don??™t have to be small; in the end it is up to us; you or I to decide how we will interpret each journey and whether we will appreciate its value.

The Power of Emma Woodhouse

The Power of Emma Woodhouse
Emma has been described as a classic feminist novel. Even though Emma was written before any true women??™s right movements had taken place, Emma Woodhouse takes on many masculine characteristics and has much more power than many other young women in the late 18th century. Readers see the luxuries that Emma Woodhouse has, and Emma is fully aware that she answers to no one. She is fortunate enough to not have to worry about primogeniture or an entailment because there are no close male relatives. Because Emma has a high opinion of herself, and because she does not have any socioeconomic reason to get married, she is not a stereotypical Austen heroine.
Emma??™s privileged attitude starts at a young age with a father that never denies her anything and a governess that is only a few years older, neither of which give good discipline if any at all. The only person who redirects her in any meaningful way is George Knightley, her brother-in-law, father figure, and eventually love interest.
Emma and Mr. Knightley??™s constant disagreements show that Emma can stand her ground to a socially high ranking male, and in several cases plays Devil??™s Advocate. One argument in particular, after Emma discourages Harriet from accepting Mr. Martin??™s proposal and Mr. Knightley encourages it, Emma ?????¦ still thought herself a better judge of such a point of female right and refinement than he could be??¦??? (48). Even though Emma is a woman and sixteen years Knightley??™s junior, she argues with him in a very masculine way, without any regret or submissiveness and believes herself to be right without a doubt.
Emma defies social expectations because she has no desire, or need, to get married. Emma tells Harriet that she has never experienced love, but it would be a different story if she were to fall in love. Emma says ?????¦ few married women are half as much mistress of their husband??™s house as I am of Hartfield; and never, never could I expect to be so truly beloved and important; so always first and right in any man??™s eyes as I am in my father??™s.??? (62). Emma knows that she would be bound by a marriage, for if she married she would not have the same power and say in a potential husband??™s home than she has at her father??™s. Because, of course, it was a woman??™s main goal in life to wed, Harriet is shocked that Emma would consider not getting married and notes that she would be an old maid like Miss Bates. Emma knows her social class is higher than that of Miss Bates and she will never be a poor old maid, she discounts that idea by saying ?????¦a single woman, of good fortune, is always respectable??¦??? (62). She basically means that if a woman was fortunate enough to be born into the right situation, the right class and enough money, she will be respected in her own right, not something she married into.
In contrast to nearly all other women in her time period, Emma had the power to do more than simply accept or reject a marriage proposal. She does, however, marry Mr. Knightley for love, not because she needs to gain any social status or wealth. In fact, it is Mr. Knightley who actually moves to Hartfield to live with Emma, a practice unheard of in the late 18th century.
By the end of the book, Emma analyzes her actions and concludes that Knightley may not have been wrong about everything, though she does not admit she was always wrong, she realizes that her actions had consequences. Throughout the novel, the readers experience Emma growing and maturing into a sensible young woman who eventually marries for love rather than for social gain. Emma was a sort of pre-feminist in the aspect that she was not submissive to Mr. Knightley and that she did not want to marry because she was independently wealthy and of high social class.
Works Cited
Austen, Jane. Emma. Ed. George Justice. 4th ed. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 2012. Print.

The Power of Cinema and Cinema Obscura

The Power of Cinema and Cinema Obscura
Uploaded by warningsign on Aug 12, 2006

The Power of Cinema and Cinema Obscura

Cinema has been used ruthlessly for their own ends since its creation, by politicians, entrepreneurs, generals, zealots, bishops, mass murderers, pedants, pedagogues, and snake oil salesmen.

The early establishment of major studios, along with the creation of Hollywood and its subsequent emergence as the world centre of cinematic production, resulted in the ???studio system???, which concentrated power over the medium in the hands of a few studio heads, who even owned the cinemas themselves.

Consequently, the philosophies underpinning the message of most films became those of a few conservative men like Louis B.Mayer and Jack Warner.

In 1934, all the major Hollywood studios signed a ???treaty??? that merely rubber-stamped what had been common practice ??“ widespread adherence to ???moral??? guidelines in cinematic productions.

The document was known as the Hollywood Production Code and was administered by the Hays Office, headed by the Catholic League of Decency??™s nominee, Joe Breen.

This entity eventually gave way to the formalised Government censorship that exists to this day, but the industry retained a culture born of those days that perpetuated the cinematic viewpoint of white Christian male dominance of society.

Consequently, the medium of cinema has been used to brainwash generations of us to accept, for the advancement of their own ends, a semiotic dogma consisting of the following premises

White people and the Christian God are superior, and others are inferior

Men are superior, women are inferior

The white, male-dominated, Christian family unit is superior, other relationships and people are inferior

As a member of this majority, it is morally superior to share the preferences of your peers in politics, morals, looks and adornment, sexuality and personal conduct , lifestyles, and products, as expressed to you in films and filmed advertisements.

Everyone who is not part of a traditional white male-dominated Christian family unit can become less inferior by imitating these preferences.

Cinema has also been used by persons of broader views, but an imbalance existed, and the more sinister forces prevailed for most of the century.

Social consciousness in films gradually forced its way to a more prominent position, partly as a reaction by Hollywood??™s creative artists to the persecution of their peers in the early 1950s by Senator Joseph McCarthy who accused the industry of fostering Communists, and received the studio heads??™ fawning assurances that they would eradicate such people from the industy.

Proponents of a more open and unblinkered medium hoped it would better protect the civil liberties of its public and its artists at the same time.

Cinema Obscura and the Democratic Dollar

The title, ???Cinema Obscura and the Democratic Dollar??? is drawn from my belief that cinema obscures as much as it reveals, and that economic pressure is the main factor determining what cinema reveals and what it obscures.

Camera Obscura, one of the basic technologies that eventually became cinema, provides an analogy for the predicament of humankind in understanding the effects a century of dogmatic cinema has had on it??™s collective conscious.

The audience sits in a closed and darkened room(hence the term: camera=room, obscura=dark).

Through a very small hole in the wall, a scene of the world beyond the room is naturally projected, inverted, onto the opposite wall.

Our knowledge of the world beyond our direct experience consists of what we see projected on screens, including the screen of our memory, from through the pinhole-sized aperture of the medium??™s dogmatic point of view.

We are inside the box, trying to see the exterior of the box.

When cinema developed as a commercial medium, the effect of the democratic dollar was to only allow cinematic works to dominate that space that fitted the world view of the audience segment most enfranchised by it??™s ticket-buying power, the white family unit, as perceived through the lens of commercial interest and government and religious doctrine.

No brainwashing technique, persuasive doctrine, or force of arms could be more effective a tool for enabling social control.

Effects of the Technology

It is the nature of cinematic technology, even, it??™s definition, that it creates such a verisimilitude of reality as to suspend disbelief to some degree in the audience.

This is mainly because, to the eye of the viewer, the narrative space employed by cinema is apparently infinite.

The vision fills, or almost fills, the viewer??™s entire field of vision, and the audio surrounds the audience, creating experiential virtuality.

Such an effect is very powerful in its ability to coordinate sensory stimuli holistically, and therefore imbues upon its content a particular potency.

The vision of cinema as an infinite narrative space is a myth held by the consumers, not the creators, of the medium??™s works.

The process of creating a cinematic experience involves many competing factors that limit the outcomes within that space.

One of those limiting factors is the very vastness of possibilities the medium has the potential to explore, the consequent power causing powerful forces to seek to control it, and allowing art to be consumed by artifice, and reality to be outranked by appearance.

The nature of the medium also has inherent limitations not immediately obvious to the consumer ??“ the narrative space is crowded beyond the margins, like the wings of a stage, crammed with lights and anxious people.

Those who perform in it are often huddled together to fit the frame, splitting takes of a momentary emotion over shoots taking days, holding positions for close-ups, getting coffee and a pedicure between instants of filmic time, and production time costs dictate urgency over precision and focus of intent.

Of all the forces applied to it, the creativity of cinema is most strongly influenced by money.

The artist??™s imagination is curbed by the exorbitant costs of film production, and the need to make a product that fulfils the expectations of studio heads, producers, directors, and stars, and the demographic groups most likely to spend heavily at the box-office.

Cinema??™s power to enlighten will continue to be obscured while the Democratic Dollar decrees it should be so.

Race and Ethnicity in Film

Depiction of race in cinema has a sorry history.

The attitude most prevalent in Western Cinema has been ???White is right, and the rest are heathens!???

Races other than whites were portrayed as less than truly human in many films, or ignored, or patronized.

Some pivotal early films were pure racist propaganda, most notably D.W.Griffith??™s ???Birth of a Nation??? (1915), which was made far more powerful than it??™s script deserved, by the use of new effects and applications of the technology that were to become central to the language of film thereafter

While such techniques as fades, close-ups, use of perspective, juxtaposition of symbols, tracking shots, reveals, dissolves and wipes, would be used by the industry to make cinema more effective in communicating with its audience, they would also later be used by Leni Reifenstahl to glorify Hitler with her production virtuosity, and blame Jews for the economic woes of Germany.

African-Americans, Islanders and Aborigines of various races, Arabs, Jews, Hindus, and Asians were the groups most mercilessly lampooned, patronised, defamed, insulted, demeaned and maligned in films ??“ they were the sneaky, restless, ???natives???, usually vicious and untrustworthy, or merely stupid and harmless.

African-Americans and Asians were particularly victimised by the medium. When these cultures were not being portrayed as vicious villains as in ???Birth of a Nation???(1915), they were generally depicted as ridicululous and humorous such as in ???Little Black Sambo???(1935), the Rastus movies such as ???How Rastus Got His Turkey???(1911), and the smiling fawning Chinamen of westerns, to the weird Oriental in such performances as Mickey Rooney??™s Mr. Moto in ???Breakfast at Tiffany??™s???(1961), or Peter Sellers in ???The Fiendish Plot of Dr. Fu Manchu??? (1980).

Even the most benign efforts of film-makers in engaging race usually merely reinforced the view of the person of another race as an inferior, essentially happy in their role in society, and respectful of white superiority, as in the ???Mammy??? and ???Uncle??? roles depicted in ???Gone With The Wind???(1935) and ???Uncle Tom??™s Cabin???(1903 ??“ 1976).

Essentially all of the principal players were white actors in blackface or yellowface or redface, often with bizarre prosthetics or silly ???ethnic??? makeovers, underlining the fact that the cinema industry considered that non-whites were not actually capable of making films about themselves.

Film-makers of recent times have attempted to compensate for the mistakes of the past, and more production control has passed into the hands of individuals from a much broader race spectrum, but the imprint the past century of race portrayal on film has had on our social fabric is not easily washed away.

Gender in the Cinema

Since the earliest days of cinema, gender roles and sexual politics in most films have followed clearly defined parameters with a didactic precision.

The dogma reads that men are inately aggressive and dominant and must battle to overcome their rivals, and a woman??™s resistance, while women are weak, flighty creatures, subject to extreme emotional outbursts and irrational actions, and incapable of sustaining themselves, physically or emotionally, without the support of a man.

Most of the female characters who were not ???the marrying type??? were ???femme fatales??? who either repented, reformed, and married, or met with a bitter end, while the male roles were either heroes, villians, or cowards.

Politics and Propaganda in Cinema

As early as 1898, film was used as propaganda to enlist support for the war effort in Spain, and in 1900, films were screened in Britain showing alleged Boer atrocities that had been staged by English actors.

Both sides of the conflict in the First World War used propaganda films extensively, and between the wars and beyond, propaganda was used to extol the virtues or expound upon the evils of political ideologies such as capitalism and communism, dependent on the Government??™s point of view, and to convince voters to support domestic politicians.

During World War I, Woodrow Wilson had formed the Committee on Public Information, while Britain, Australia, and most European countries also used similar bodies to coordinate their propaganda efforts from that time on.

Classic examples of blatant socio/political propaganda such as the anti-Marijuana ???Reefer Madness???(1935), and the anti-Communist ???Bolshevism on Trial???(1917) achieved much of their goals, but cinematic propaganda has had it??™s most profound effects in influencing the moral imperatives of films made primarily for entertainment.

Violence in the cinema

Violence in the cinema is as customary as popcorn.

Since the phantasmagorie in pre-cinema times, one of the main functions of the cinema was to allow people to come together and be afraid, be very afraid.

Vampires, monsters, ghosts, demons, dragons, sharks, crocodiles, aliens, and worst of all, human maniacs, have scared the endorphins out of audiences to the present day.

Murder, combat, and other forms of violence are major tools of cinematic expression, even in children??™s films and cartoons, the only apparent moral dimension being whether the violence is being conducted by ???the goodies??? or ???the baddies???, and is it too realistic or is it make believe.

Cultural anthropologists and others have posited for decades that the preponderance of violence in cinema might create a more violent society.

Other social commentators have argued that film has merely reflected the trend, not inspired it.

Empirical research is extremely difficult since no readily-available control group exists that has not already been subjected to cinematic violence, or at least been in contact with those who have.

Now and beyond

In the modern world, the discourse in and about cinema is much broader than ever before.

Modern humanity has seen the tricks up the conjurers??™ sleeves, and while some are happy with the status quo, a vast number of people worldwide are working specifically to redress the imbalances and repair the damage by creating more diversity in films.

Governments throughout the world have thrown huge amounts of money toward these goals in recent times, and not all of it has been wasted.

The Australian film industry is a good example of how government funding has often lead to the success of good films with original, positive messages inclusive of culture and gender, that might not have been made without such assistance.

But the results of the star system in inflating wages bills, and the threat of being consumed by the video industry, digital television, and the internet, mean that the democratic dollar will hold sway with the big players for a long time to come.

Whether consumers continue to be fed a diet of dogma via the cinema will depend most on whether they continue to support such films at the box-office.

Advances in technology mean that anyone can access the means of creating an effective film now for about as much as the cost of a new car.

This potential broad banding of the production base, and its flow on effect to the creative base, should have an extremely liberating effect on human culture??™s ability to express itself with minimum distortion through the medium of cinema.

???the Potential of Individuals to Challenge a Group Is Influenced by Their Own Sense of Belonging to Their Community and the World Around Them

???The potential of individuals to challenge a group is influenced by their own sense of belonging to their community and the world around them???
How have the texts you have studies demonstrated the truth of this statement
When one analyses the poems of Peter skyrzynecki, the graphic novel The arrival by Shaun tan and the motion picture Goodfellas directed by Martin Scorsese one come to realises that the potential of individuals to challenge a group is in fact influenced by their own sense of belonging to their community and the world around them. As the poem called ???Feliks skyrzynecki??? and ???postcard??? by Peter skyrzynecki, in addition to the texts ???the arrival??? and ???Goodfellas??? unequivocally are perfect examples into the naked truth of this fact.
As the contexts of these texts differ greatly and seem to come from different dimensions as they are set in very different times, worlds and places full of their own unique traditions, rituals and customs. However these texts are intrinsically linked from their core in relation to the universal theme and need for belonging respectively faced and felt by the protagonists of the aforementioned texts. As the states of their spirits ultimately rely on their experience of unity and harmony of the relationships they have throughout their lives in the different texts.
To begin the poem titled ???Feliks skyrzynecki??? discusses the way that belonging rises from being attached to places and people and that people as individuals can choose to belong and the concept of belonging to an individual can be changed or modified over time. As the protagonist is conveyed to be strongly attached to his home as at the beginning of the poem, the simile and hyperbole evident in the lines ???loving his garden like an only child…sweeping its path ten times around the world. Effectively conveys the perception the composer has of his father??™s ???paternal-connection??? and the dedication he has towards the garden.
In a similar manner sense of belonging also comes from his close connection to his polish friends. As the accumulation of affirmative verbs in the lines ???they reminisced about farms where paddocks flowered….horses they bred…???conveys the sense of their shared nostalgia and pride that they have for their cultural heritage which connects them together and fosters a sense of belonging.
These two examples clearly indicate how the potential of individuals to challenge a group is influenced by their own sense of belonging to their community and the world around them as due to the protagonists strong attachment to his home and friends he gains a sense of security and comfort in what to him is a foreign and unknown world. The crux of this statement is validated when it is revealed in the line ???kept pace only with the joneses of his own mind??™s making???, which means he was content with what little he had and as a result didn??™t conform or assimilate into the new society or world he now lived.
However in stark contrast the protagonist featured in the ???The arrival??? for the most of the story feels alienation, confusion and discontentment due to the fact that he is not with his family and he now lives in a place where he was very little connection to. This is evident in the great difference of the expression in the protagonists face between when he leaves and when he is reunited with his family at the end of the text. This emphatically highlights how the company of family and friends in addition to a sentimental attachment a place is important to a sense of belonging. As this concept is also demonstrated in the poem called ???Feliks skyrzynecki??? and as just discussed the graphic novel ???The arrival???.
Since this is the case it obvious that the potential of the protagonist to challenge a group would indeed be is influenced by their own sense of belonging to their community and the world around them. As he as a migrant would face my challenges living in to him what would be a foreign world he knows very little about as in the story the immigrant struggles to find a job, a place to stay and a sense of meaning in his new existence in addition to the language barriers he must face living in a new world. An example of this is when he arrives on shore and a series of time lapse medium shots present the difficulties and convey the confusion of him communicating with migration officials.
However despite all of these obstacles he??™s spirits are elevated when he is reunited with his family and enjoys a nice meal with them at the end of the text. This shows that in addition to food, clothing and shelter the protagonist has also attained love, peace and happiness from the company of his family. By not conforming to his new home to be content. And as a result indirectly challenging proponents of assimilation and encouraging multiculturalism. Hence it is clear in this case that the potential of individuals to challenge a group is in fact influenced by their own sense of belonging to their community and the world around them.
On another note the motion picture Goodfellas directed by Martin Scorsese presents a much different perspective to the table in relation to belonging. As it??™s a true story of the life of the mobster, Henry hill and his intoxication to belonging to his ???extended crime family???. His obsession is perfectly conveyed in a extreme close-up in addition to the narration which was juxtaposed with this scene near the start of the movie when a then a young Henry is scene eagerly, prying on the gangsters across the street through the window.
???To me being a gangster was being better than the president of the united states???… ???It was there I knew I belonged???…. ???People like my father couldn??™t understand I was a part of something???. These techniques effectively highlight Henry??™s motives for joining the mafia and just how important belonging was to him. The mafia not only challenged the law they also challenged traditional notion of belonging as Henry ???belongs??? more to his crime family than he does to his ???blood relatives??? as when he gets released from court his crime family is the first to greet him.
In another scene Henry explain in the form of narration that ???For us to live anyway else was nuts, those goody-goody people who worked crappy jobs for bum pay checks ever, who worried about their bills were everyday dead. they were chumps, they had no courage if we wanted something we just took it anyone who complained twice got hit so hard believe me they never complained again ???While a panning shots shows them and him and his friends living the high life that came with being in the mob.
This unequivocally shows that the potential of individuals to challenge a group is influenced by their own sense of belonging to their community and the world around them. As Henry and his crime family got everything they wanted while developing a highly loyal, close-nit organisation in the process which allowed them to take on the law and traditional notions of belonging.
In a similar vein the poem titled ???Postcard??? by Peter skyrzynecki also shares the same sentiment that the movie Goodfellas portrays to traditional notions of belonging as the personification in the line ???Warsaw, old town I never knew you….??? in a nutshell sums up the composer??™s feelings of dissociation with the ???old country??? and feelings of being divided between two cultures in a generation gap. However the composers confidence in the rhetorical question ???beloved Ukraine, What??™s my choice to be Sums up his predicament as he is not going to accept a past he does not know.
And in the process the potential of the composer to challenge his cultural heritage and hence his parents is influenced by his own feelings toward the old country. And hence his sense of belonging albeit lack of and the lack of attachment he feels to his cultural heritage strengthens his own perspective of belonging as an individual.
In conclusion as evident from the texts discussed earlier it can be clearly noted that without a doubt that individuals are influenced by their own sense of belonging to their community and the world around them. As these texts demonstrate that the universal concept of belonging and attachment can take a myriad of different forms whether it is belonging to a powerful crime family, the traditional family or a lack of belonging to one cultural heritage. Whatever the context may be, it is undebatable that from the study of these texts the truth of the statement ???The potential of individuals to challenge a group is influenced by their own sense of belonging to their community and the world around them??? can be validated.

The Postponement of Marrige

The Postponement of Marriage
Western society has progressed in wide and remarkable array of measures; economically, technologically, religious, and culturally. Realistically our world has changed more in the past 6 decades than it has in the 150 years before that. But the most glaring and all encompassing example of this phenomenon is often over-looked. While seemingly trivial and insignificant, the rising average age of first marriage near perfectly incorporates so many of these factors. In 1975 that median age for marriage was 24 years old; by 2003 that number had climbed to 29.5 (Statistics Canada, 4). A 22% increase. The reasons for this development say substantially more than it does standing alone; longer life spans, the feminist movement, the decline in the church??™s social influence, and contraceptives. These five motives quite thoroughly cover many of the past half century??™s developments in Canada, America, and the rest of the Western world.

The primary reason is the simplest of all; people are living far longer than they used to. The current global average life expectancy at birth is approximated at 67.2 years (with countries like Canada in the low 80??™s); at the start of the 20th century this number was in the area 35-45 years (World Factbook, 1). Advances in medicine, the decline of conventional warfare, eradication of a variety of diseases, and the mechanization of dangerous employment have all drastically elevated how long we can expect to live. It doesn??™t take much insight to relate this to the raising average rate of marriage; if one expects to die by 40 there is good reason to marry by 20. But if you??™re planning on living till your late 70??™s you might not be so inclined to rush.

The other reasons are increasingly more abstract, to varying degrees at least. A commonly overlooked explanation is the ???second-wave??? of Feminism in the 60??™s and 70??™s. Building on the achievements of the ???first-wave???, particularly the right to suffrage, women in developed countries strived to correct gender inequality, especially the underrepresentation of women in politics and the corporate workplace. Because of these efforts women have entered the workforce in much greater numbers; in 1950 participation between the ages of 16 and 65 was 33.9% in the United States, by 1998 it had more than doubled to 76.2% (Fullerton, 2). These numbers are highest for women in the mid-20??™s, the ones formally expected to get married.

The effect this has on marriage is obvious; with more women being employed they have less time and opportunity to engage in a full-fledged relationship, the ordeals of planning and enacting and actual marriage, and eventually child birth. Maternity leave has severe detrimental effects on a prospering career; while absent for over a year your presence will slowly be forgotten, your previous functions/duties will be fulfilled by an alternative candidate, and most disadvantageous of all; being passed over for promotions. The toll on men is notably smaller; conceiving a child for them takes maybe half an hour of their time and their off. Clearly the incentive here for profession-minded women is to delay their marriage until they are safely settled into financial stability and job security; something usually not attained till their 30??™s.

It is also important to consider the initial reasons for why men and women would marry so early; social pressure. Inevitably we??™d all be driven by sexual desires, a yearning for a long term relationship and eventually kids. But without a proper marriage this was deemed ???immoral??™ and lacking decency, most of all these claims were made by the church and other religious institutions. Priests, Rabbi??™s and Imam??™s would enthusiastically condemn this behaviour; the forbiddance of premarital sex is a common theme amongst practically all faiths. Considering the immense influence that these institutions had in our society (especially Catholicism and the Vatican in Canada), the rest of our culture obeyed without question. But like all things, this has drastically changed. The influence of religious establishments??™ steadily dwindling, people simply stopped caring about what ???God??™ had to say. This is best depicted by church attendance. In the United Kingdom 1.66 million people would participate in Sunday Mass every week in 1968. Forty years later this number has shrivelled to only 826,000 (Church Society, 1). With such diminished authority over their lives young people no longer felt pressured to get married if they wanted to be in a committed relationship and/or have sex.

The last fundamental reason for this development is the wide spread prevalence of contraceptives and their continually increased acceptance and usage. Back in the 70??™s the famous San Francisco Chronicle columnist Art Hoppe once said ???We all worry about the population explosion, but we dont worry about it at the right time???; well increasingly people are worried about conception. While historically the slightly unpredictable male condoms have been utilized to avoid impregnation but with reliable technology and better education the pill has become the contraceptive of choice in recent years. Furthermore, combined with methods such as tubal sterilization, vasectomies and thus forth, unwanted pregnancies have declined substantially (Guttmacher Institute, 11). What this means for marriage is that there are less young, 20 something year old couples who accidently conceive and are forced by their morals to marry for the sake of the child. While of course abortion is an option in this event many feel that it is not worth the risk and that they can after all handle a child, and therefore a marriage, at the moment. Youths are therefore able to participate in sexual activities while substantially lowering the chances of a pregnancy, and thus matrimony.

All throughout the world people are getting married later and later. Some people simply don??™t bother scrutinizing these developments and assume it??™s just a random, unexplainable occurrence. But in fact there very good reasons for this trend; here four of the biggest reasons were looked at and explained. Through scrutiny we can deduct that four of them are very much related to the way the world has evolved in the past half century. With better health people are living much longer, they have more time to marry. The feminist movement empowered women to take on careers which interfered with their relationships, delaying them notably. The church stopped mattering as much and therefore young people didn??™t feel the same pressure to marry in order to indulge their sexual appetites. And lastly with the increased use of contraceptives many unwanted pregnancies were avoided thus there was less moral obligation to make nuptial commitments. With this combination of developments the rise in the average age of first marriage is neither surprise nor mystery.


1. Jayson, Sharon. Sooner vs. later: Is there an ideal age for first marriage USA Today. September 11, 2008.
2. Harcombe, Dale. The Pros and Cons of Getting Married Later. August 15, 2009.
5. Fullerton, Howard N. Labor force participation: 1950-98. Monthly Labor Review. December, 2009.

Government sources
3. Statistics Canada. Marriages. Last updated January 17, 2007. Accessed March 25, 2011.
4. Life Expectancy. CIA World Factbook. Last updated March 12, 2011. Accessed March 25, 11.

Private Organizations
6. Sunday Attendance. Church Society. Last updated May, 2010. Accessed March 25, 2011.
7. Facts on Contraceptive Use. The Guttmacher Institute. Last updated January 6, 2011.

The Post World War Was Primarily Shaped by a Clash Between Communism and Capitalism

THE POST WAR WORLD WAS PRIMARILY SHAPED BY A CLASH BETWEEN COMMUNISM AND CAPITALISM. With the common enemy Germany defeated in 1945 the allies??™ United States, Britain and Soviet Union found themselves in confrontation with each other pertaining the shape of world (Kegley, 2007:110).The division was enhanced by difference in ideologies in which one was bound to follow in its quest for conquest and expansion of spheres of influence thereby upsetting the other (Campbell,2004:112).Thus according to Churchill an ???iron curtain??? was created which meant the hostilities between these two blocs emerged. Different events occurred both in Europe, Asia and Africa which were caused directly or indirectly by the clash of communism against capitalism. (Thomson, 1990:856). According to Kegley (2007:10) the Soviet Union supported communism principle in which there is only one party state and means of production are owned by the state and on the other hand Riasonovsk and Steinberg (2005:70) states that the United States, Britain supported capitalism in which many parties contest in elections (democracy), pertaining the issue of industries and trade they are privately owned. The period after world war was characterized by ideological confrontation cold war between the two leaders of communism and capitalism United States and Soviet Union respectively. These two countries never went to war against each other however they used other countries as battle grounds to fight for the success of their ideologies. It was the difference in ideologies that later led to proxy wars such as the Korean war which divided the countries in two blocs the communist and capitalist (Ikenberry,1996:3). Tensions between the Soviet Union(East), United States and Britain(West) started during a meeting at Potsdam which primarily marked the division of two opposing forces into two hostile camps, with the Soviet Union supporting communism and United States supporting capitalist ideology (McWilliams,2001:41).Tensions arose concerning the payment of reparation by Germany to Soviet. The United States and its western allies feared that if Germany paid reparation to the Soviet Union its economy would be brought to a standstill thereby leaving it vulnerable to the westward expansion of communism into western Europe a scenario which the United States and the West were not prepared to accept. Also the occupation of Germany by the

Soviet Union also meant that the United States business relation with Germany would be shuttered as the Soviet Union would monopolize all markets and industries thereby affecting free trade in Germany which is against the capitalist ideology of free trade among nations. The effect of this disagreement is that in less than three years after having disputes Germany was divided into two hostile camps East Germany being occupied by the communist and the West Germany occupied by the capitalist (McWilliams,1997:41). Another clash between the communist supported forces the leftist and capitalist the royalist forces occurred in the Greek Civil War. After realizing that they could not win the elections the leftist boycotted elections (Keylor,2003:31).Elections went on and the royalist with the support of Britain won and established the government with the restoration of the monarchy (Powers, 1969:848).Being unhappy on what was happening the communist with the support of Yugoslavia which had long desired to incorporate the Balkan states into communist confederation under Yugoslavia leadership started to re-assemble forces in rural areas and took steps to overthrow the right wing government(capitalist monarchy) (Keylor,2003:19).However the United States was quick to realize this communist insurgence and they responded by agreeing ???to support free people who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures??? these were the words of the American President announcing the Truman Doctrine in which America was to stop the spread of communism (Keylor,2009:19).To live upon their idea of containing the spread of communism into neighboring countries like Turkey the United States financed the royalist with 250 million dollars aid to suppress the communist insurgence. With the aid the royalist managed to defeat the communist forcing them into exiles in neighboring countries of Albania and Bulgaria who were communist sympathizers (Keylor,2003:19).Thus it can be seen that foreign aiders were prepared to support their fellows if they shared the same ideology which however led to the division of the country into two camps fighting one another. After infighting the royalist monarchy was thus restored thereby representing a victory of the capitalist over communism (Baylis,2001:80). A few months after the announcement of the Truman Doctrine United States announced its Marshall Plan in 1947 in order to protect its interests in Europe (Adas,2006:232).The plan was initiated to economically aid European countries after the war but instead of uniting Europe it led to division of Europe into two hostile camps communist against capitalist. To the United States

reconstruction of Europe would mean a healthy capitalist economy thereby providing market for American goods and at the same time a revived European economy would act as stumbling block to Soviet Union communism expansion (McWilliams, 2001:43).Although Stalin had been invited he refused to join it because it enabled the United States to have economic records of the Soviet Union something the communist were not prepared to adhere to. To counter attack America, Stalin formed the Molotov Plan in which East European countries signed trade agreements thereby transforming these countries into communist alliance against the west capitalist thereby creating what Churchill called the iron curtain??? meaning the division of Europe into two hostile camps (Wendth,2004:232). Returning back to the European scene the Soviet realizing the prosperity of West Germany into a dominate force and fearing that its Eastern part might be influenced by these achievement and lead to revolution against communism rule the Soviet Union initiated a yearlong blockade of Berlin from 1948-1949 (Richardson,1994:46). The Soviet had put the blockade in the hope that the west would withdraw from Berlin however that was not the case as the west reacted by airlifting food and clothing thereby leading Stalin to give up. Tension between these two forces communism and capitalism led to the division of Germany into two hostile camps and this was the result of the reaction of both sides towards each other. To react upon the actions of Soviet Union the United States on its Germany front it created the Federal Republic of Germany in order to isolate the Soviet Union and its communist ideology and to respond to this the Soviet Union announced the Germany Democratic Republic marking the division of Germany into two hostile camps up until the opening of the Berlin wall in 1989 the country was still divided into communist East and capitalist West (McWilliams,1997:41) The world during period of 1949-1955 was characterized by the formation of treaties which divided the world into two camps the communist and capitalist The United States capitalist to check the spread of communism influence by Soviet Union formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization an alliance of western allies to stop the spread of communism. Early in 1955 to counter attack NATO Soviet Union created a communist military alliance the Warsaw Pact. Thus it can be seen that the post world war was shaped by incidences in which each superpower tried to maintain its hold hence the creation of treaties along the lines of each state ideology thereby


leading to the division of the world along the superpowers interests to maintain their ideologies (McWilliam,1997:41-42). On the Asian front clash between communism and capitalism led to division of North Korea communist and the South Korea capitalist, up until today the country is still divided along the 38th parallel (Newyork Times, 2000:22).On the issue of the Korean war 1950 according to Weathersby (1993:5) he notes that both governments the North supported by communist and South supported by capitalist wanted to unify their country however each was determined to unify the country under its control. Thus it was the Democratic People??™s Republic of Korea (North Korea) with its ideology of unifying Korea under communism invaded the South. With the fear that if Korea would fall under communism, other Asian countries might also follow like a chain of dominoes thereby disturbing free trade in Asia the United States came to rescue however this created infighting and tensions between these two faction which later led to division (Weathersby,1993:5).The root causes of this division dated back to Potsdam conference when US and Soviet Union divided Korea along the 38th parallel thus with each occupying its zone it was bound to preach its ideologies in its zone and blaming the others state ideology thereby creating a long lasting division. These two opposing forces accused each other of the wrong doing with the Soviet Union blaming United States for the development of anticommunism in the South while the US accused Soviet Union of sowing undemocratic communism in the North. Tensions were further heightened when the Soviet demanded a one party state which met resist from US thereby creating tension which later divided the country and led to war (Weathersby,1993:5-6). In Poland in 1956 when Khrushnev criticized the work of Stalin it led to the Polish to revolt against the communist governance and with the support of America they established a democratic government which allowed freedom of speech and religion (Baylis,2001:80).To the Soviet the establishment of such a government near its border was a threat to its communism at home thus the Soviet Union sent military forces and restored the communist government. However to the west capitalist such action by the Soviet Union gave them more determination to stop the spread of communism thereby furthering hostilities (Baylis,2001:80). To sum up it can be seen that the post war world order after Germany defeat was shaped by the clash between Soviet led communism against the US led capitalism (Kegley,2007:110)The clash

that occurred in Europe and later exported to Asia was a result of the infighting between these two ideologies as the other wanted to dominate the other and shape the world under its principle guardianship thereby extending its sphere of influence (Campbell,2004:112).In some scenarios it led to divisions that still persist up until today such as the case with Korea which is still divided along the 38th parallel.


REFERENCE LIST Adas M, Stearns P.N& Schwartz S.B 2005 Turbulent Passage A Global History of the 20th century 3rd edition, Pearson Longman, London. Baylis J& Smith S 2001 The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations, Oxford University Press, Oxford. Campbell P.J, McKinnon A& Stevens R 2004 An Introduction to Global Studies, Wiley Blackwell, USA. Donald M Division of Korea Newyork Times, 5 June p.22. Howard M & Louis W.M.R 1998 The Oxford History of the 20th century, Oxford University Press, USA. Ikenberry G.J 1996 The myth of Post Cold war chaos, Foreign Affairs 75:3. Kegley C.W 2007 World Politics Trend& Transformation 11th edition, Thomson Wadsworth, USA. Keylor W.R 2003 A World of Nations, Oxford University Press, USA. McWilliams W.C& Piotrowski H 1997 The World Since 1945:A History of International Relation 4th edition, Lynne Rienner, USA. McWilliams W.C& Piotrowski H 2001 The World Since 1945:A History of International Relation 5th edition, Lynne Rienner, USA. Powers R.J 1969 Containment from Greece to Vietnam and back: Political Research Quartley 22:846, Sage publication, University of Victoria. Riasanovsk N.V& Steinberg M.D 2005 A History of Russia, Oxford University Press, New York USA. Richardson J.L 1994 Crisis diplomacy: The Great powers since the mid 19th century, Cambridge, London.
Thomson D 1990 Europe Since Napoleon, Penguin Group, England. Weathersby K 1993 Soviet aims in Korea& the origins of the Korean war 1945-1950, Cold War International history project, Washington DC. Wendth S 2004 Cold war (1945-1950), The start of the atomic age (1) Detroit, Gale p.230-233.

The Portrayal of Womens Imag in Magazine Advertisement

The Portrayal of Womens Images in ???Nari??™ Magazine??™s Advertisements

This paper focuses on gender behavior pictured in the advertisement of an issue of Nari monthly (2068 Asar).The study aims to see how gender images in print advertisements have been presented What messages about women have been given to society through magazine advertisements The paper will analysis all of the print advertisement and try to sort out the gender behavior portrayed on them and illuminate how advertising functions to display our notions of gender roles, making use of visual meanings. Since advertising reaches millions of individuals daily, it is obvious that advertising in women??™s magazines plays a major part in creating and maintaining the consumer culture in which we live.
Advertising is ???an idea may be developed to give the sense of giving notice of something of telling someone about something??? ( Barnard 27). It is a social practice, and it does not operate in a vacuum. The social role of advertising involves a number of interconnected relationships. Studying advertising, special emphasis needs to be put on visual images as nonverbal symbols. As a socializing agent, the visual imagery provided by the media can have a powerful impact on our attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors, since it can contribute meanings and associations entirely apart and of much greater significance. The images conveyed by advertising have become so sophisticated and persuasive that they now organize our experiences and understanding in a significant way.
Advertising occupies a special position within the economic organization of a modern society, and it is not just an economic entity. Advertising deals with ideas, attitudes, and values, giving them cultural form through its signifying practices. Advertising gives meaning to words and images. Through this process, advertising diffuses its meanings into the belief systems of the society. As Schudson puts, the promotional culture of advertising has worked its way into “what we read, what we care about, the ways we raise our children, our ideas of right and wrong conduct, our attribution of significance to image in both public and private life” (p. 13).
Modern advertising depends on images, and images are symbols which can convey meanings as efficiently as verbal symbols can. Like words, visual images also function as symbols that create multi-leveled meanings that have to be decoded to be understood. Visual images in advertising is especially important since, according to Bovee and Arens : “most readers of advertisements (1) look at the illustration, (2) read the headline, and (3) read the body copy, in that order.” (p. 47) Visual images, therefore, carry a great deal of responsibility for the message decoding in an advertisement.
A significant cultural and structural analysis of advertising is provided in Decoding Advertisements (1978) by Judith Williamson. She explains the ideological processes in advertising by which goods are given meaning. According to Williamson, advertising transforms the practical “use value” of projects into the symbolic “exchange value” of commodities. She calls this the “metastructure,” “where meaning is not just decoded within one structure, but transferred to create another” (p. 43). Her central point is that meaning is created through the audience, rather than meaning being directed at audiences. The exchange of meaning in the advertisement may depend upon the readers cultural knowledge. Thus, Williamson emphasizes that it is the structure of the advertisement itself which “positions” the reader in a certain knowledge context.
In the issue of Nari, women are rarely shown in out-of-home working roles. They are depicted in the house hold activities as a beautiful girl with incredible smile has been presented as a model for indoor decoration. Most of the women models are shown as either household women or general worker in the office as a secretary. No woman is shown as a professional or high-level business person. Women rarely ventured far from home by themselves or with other women. Women are shown as dependent on mens protection. They are presented as sex objects or as domestic assistants. Females are frequently shown in advertisements for cleaning products, food products, beauty products, drugs, clothing, and home appliances etc. In the other hands, males are most often shown in advertisements for cars, travel, alcoholic beverages, cigarettes, banks, industrial products, entertainment media, and industrial companies (p. 1-104).
There are 36 advertises in the magazine which have woman model, among them only one model is shown out of home, rest of other are shown in either in the kitchen or as the model for cosmetic product. So what we can claim that the printed advertisements have been stereotyping images of women. Advertising messages about women are often stereotypical (e.g., a womans place is in the home, women do not make important decisions or do important things, women are dependent and need mens protection, and men regard women primarily as sexual objects). Advertisements have consistently confined women to traditional mother-, home-, or beauty/sex-oriented roles that are not representative of womens diversity.
The image of women that has predominated in magazine advertisements is of weak, childish, dependent, domestic, irrational, subordinate creatures, the producers of children and little else compared with men. Lucy Komisar suggests the audience of advertising could never know the reality of womens lives by looking at advertising, since “A womans place is not only in the home, according to most advertising copywriters and art directors; it is in the kitchen or the laundry room” (p.301). Komisar also refers to the image created by advertisers as a combination sex object, wife, and mother who achieves fulfillment by looking beautiful for men. A woman is not depicted as intelligent, but submissive and subservient to men. If a woman has a job, it is as a secretary.
In the Advertisement of Samsung household appliances, a woman model is shown in a corner of a kitchen where she is hugging a refrigerator. She looks as if the refrigerator is the one and only victory of her life (p.113). Among the stereotypes typically employed in advertising by the media are the ideas that women do unimportant things and a womans place is in the home. The nature and development of these role stereotypes appears to be a function of cultural norms and socialization.
In the advertisements where women are portrayed in purely decorative roles, these advertisements look as if the womans role in advertising is sexy and alluring. These advertisements present that exposure to advertisements employing stereotypical sex roles for women resulted in significantly lower perceptions of womens managerial abilities than exposure to advertisements depicting women in professional type roles requiring such abilities.
In an advertise of National Life insurance, a woman model???s size is smaller than that of men.(p.27) And even the role given to the woman is the post of secretary. In another advertise of Samsung mobile, woman??™s size in the picture is shorter and smaller than that of man (p.52). A height relationship between males and females in the advertisements is really stereotypical. In fact, advertisement are very strange creations, particularly as regards their portrayals of gender relations, and illustrated that the best way to understand the male-female relation is to compare it to the parent-child relation in which men take on the roles of parents while women behave as children normally would be expected to. It clears that gender differences in function and status not only carry over from the real world to the advertisement world but may find their purest expression there for decoding behavior concentrates on hands, eyes, knees, facial expressions, head postures, relative sizes, positioning and placing, head-eye aversion and finger biting and sucking. He felt the most simple gesture, familiar rituals or taken-for-granted forms of address were sources for understanding relations between the sexes and the social forces at work behind those relations.
Having explored the ideals of femininity in advertising they can be revealed to be carefully constructed in each of their elements ??“ layout, colour, packaging of the product and the product itself, text, language used, and which model was photographed to represent the advertise ideology through the codes and conventions it uses. In some advertise consumption of the product is implied to lead to being loved, cared for and protected by a man and this is portrayed as highly desirable. The cosmetics advertisements that I have looked at, do not show a female empowered to stand alone without masculine approval, and to consume the product as a luxury for her, to make her more attractive to a man.
So what can we conclude that women are weakened by advertising portrayals via five categories: relative size(women shown smaller or lower, relative to men), feminine touch(women constantly touching themselves), function ranking(occupational), reutilization of subordination (proclivity for lying down at inappropriate times, etc.), and licensed withdrawal(women never quite a part of the scene, possibly via far-off gazes).
The results of this study are not very surprising, since magazine advertisements are not meant to serve as social primers enumerating the cultural rules of correct and proper behavior. They are merely designed to naturalize people and things in such a way as to maximize demand by defining social relations in terms of the consumption of goods and services.
Using women in a sexist tone in advertisements has more profound social implications. If the media do mold expectations, opinions, and attitudes, then the audience of these ads may accept the way women are depicted as reality. What may be needed is the portrayal of women in roles that actually reflect their perceived attributes and their individuality.

The Portrait of a Lady

MY grandmother, like everybody??™s grandmother, was an old woman. She had been old and wrinkled for the twenty years that I had known her. People said that she had once been young and pretty and had even had a husband, but that was hard to believe. My grandfather??™s portrait hung above the mantelpiece in the drawing room. He wore a big turban and loose-fitting clothes. His long, white beard covered the best part of his chest and he looked at least a hundred years old. He did not look the sort of person who would have a wife or children. He looked as if he could only have lots and lots of grandchildren. As for my grandmother being young and pretty, the thought was almost revolting. She often told us of the games she used to play as a child. That seemed quite absurd and undignified on her part and we treated it like the fables of the Prophets she used to tell us.

She had always been short and fat and slightly bent. Her face was a criss-cross of wrinkles running from everywhere to everywhere. No, we were certain she had always been as we had

known her. Old, so terribly old that she could not have grown older, and had stayed at the same age for twenty years. She could never have been pretty; but she was always beautiful. She hobbled about the house in spotless white with one hand resting on her waist to balance her stoop and the other telling the beads of her rosary. Her silver locks were scattered untidily over her pale, puckered face, and her lips constantly moved in inaudible prayer. Yes, she was beautiful. She was like the winter landscape in the mountains, an expanse of pure white serenity breathing peace and contentment.

My grandmother and I were good friends. My parents left me with her when they went to live in the city and we were constantly together. She used to wake me up in the morning and get me ready for school. She said her morning prayer in a monotonous sing-song while she bathed and dressed me in the hope that I would listen and get to know it by heart; I listened because I loved her voice but never bothered to learn it. Then she would fetch my wooden slate which she had already washed and plastered with yellow chalk, a tiny earthen ink-pot and a red pen, tie them all in a bundle and hand it to me. After a breakfast of a thick, stale chapatti with a little butter and sugar spread on it, we went to school. She carried several stale chapattis with her for the village dogs.

My grandmother always went to school with me because the school was attached to the temple. The priest taught us the alphabet and the morning prayer. While the children sat in rows on either side of the verandah singing the alphabet or the prayer in a chorus, my grandmother sat inside reading the scriptures. When we had both finished, we would walk back together. This time the village dogs would meet us at the temple door. They followed us to our home growling and fighting with each other for the chapattis we threw to them.

When my parents were comfortably settled in the city, they sent for us. That was a turning-point in our friendship. Although we shared the same room, my grandmother no longer came to school with me. I used to go to an English school in a motor bus. There were no dogs in the streets and she took to feeding sparrows in the courtyard of our city house.

As the years rolled by we saw less of each other. For some time she continued to wake me up and get me ready for school. When I came back she would ask me what the teacher had

taught me. I would tell her English words and little things of western science and learning, the law of gravity, Archimedes??™ Principle, the world being round, etc. This made her unhappy. She could not help me with my lessons. She did not believe in the things they taught at the English school and was distressed that there was no teaching about God and the scriptures. One day I announced that we were being given music lessons. She was very disturbed. To her music had lewd associations. It was the monopoly of harlots and beggars and not meant for gentlefolk. She said nothing but her silence meant disapproval. She rarely talked to me after that.

When I went up to University, I was given a room of my own. The common link of friendship was snapped. My grandmother accepted her seclusion with resignation. She rarely left her spinning-wheel to talk to anyone. From sunrise to sunset she sat by her wheel spinning and reciting prayers. Only in the afternoon she relaxed for a while to feed the sparrows. While she sat in the verandah breaking the bread into little bits, hundreds of little birds collected round her creating a veritable bedlam of chirrupings. Some came and perched on her legs, others on her shoulders. Some even sat on her head. She smiled but never shooed them away. It used to be the happiest half-hour of the day for her.

When I decided to go abroad for further studies, I was sure my grandmother would be upset. I would be away for five years, and at her age one could never tell. But my grandmother could. She was not even sentimental. She came to leave me at the railway station but did not talk or show any emotion. Her lips moved in prayer, her mind was lost in prayer. Her fingers were busy telling the beads of her rosary. Silently she kissed my forehead, and when I left I cherished the moist imprint as perhaps the last sign of physical contact between us.

But that was not so. After five years I came back home and was met by her at the station. She did not look a day older. She still had no time for words, and while she clasped me in her arms I could hear her reciting her prayers. Even on the first day of my arrival, her happiest moments were with her sparrows whom she fed longer and with frivolous rebukes.

In the evening a change came over her. She did not pray. She collected the women of the neighbourhood, got an old drum and started to sing. For several hours she thumped the sagging

skins of the dilapidated drum and sang of the home-coming of warriors. We had to persuade her to stop to avoid overstraining. That was the first time since I had known her that she did not pray.

The next morning she was taken ill. It was a mild fever and the doctor told us that it would go. But my grandmother thought differently. She told us that her end was near. She said that, since only a few hours before the close of the last chapter of her life she had omitted to pray, she was not going to waste any more time talking to us.

We protested. But she ignored our protests. She lay peacefully in bed praying and telling her beads. Even before we could suspect, her lips stopped moving and the rosary fell from her lifeless fingers. A peaceful pallor spread on her face and we knew that she was dead.

We lifted her off the bed and, as is customary, laid her on the ground and covered her with a red shroud. After a few hours of mourning we left her alone to make arrangements for her funeral. In the evening we went to her room with a crude stretcher to take her to be cremated. The sun was setting and had lit her room and verandah with a blaze of golden light. We stopped half-way in the courtyard. All over the verandah and in her room right up to where she lay dead and stiff wrapped in the red shroud, thousands of sparrows sat scattered on the floor. There was no chirruping. We felt sorry for the birds and my mother fetched some bread for them. She broke it into little crumbs, the way my grandmother used to, and threw it to them. The sparrows took no notice of the bread. When we carried my grandmother??™s corpse off, they flew away quietly. Next morning the sweeper swept the bread crumbs into the dustbin.

The Population Is Growing at an Alarming Rate. Offer Some Solutions

The population of the world is growing at an alarming rate. Outline some of the problems of overpopulation and offer some possible solutions.

Nowadays, there are over six billions of people on the earth. The number is still growing at an alarming rate. There are places in which the number of people is enormous. The situation, both in cities and villages, is getting worse. Many people believe that the population will soon be to great in number. The problem of overpopulation is emerging. The problems connected with overpopulation are becoming apparent. Since the number of people is increasing, we cannot ignore them. I believe that there are some possible solutions.
One of the problems that results from overpopulation is the amount of food necessary to satisfy the needs of the growing population. It is necessary to keep all of us alive. It should be remembered that it may be difficult to accomplish this. Simply, we may not be able to produce the necessary amount of food. To solve the problem, we could search for new ways of cultivating food which would be more efficient.
Another issue is the living space needed for the population. The more people living, the more space needed. It is clear that houses need to be built somewhere. We also need space to feel comfortable. Perhaps we should consider building more skyscrapers. Another solution would be populating uninhabited terrains. By doing this we could provide enough living space for the growing population.
It is known that people produce much trash. The amount of rubbish is a great problem even now. Overpopulation may lead to problems with trash utilization. There are many ways in which we could combat the problem. We could educate people to make them aware of the need of recycling, invent packages which would biodegrade much faster.
These are just a few ways, in which we could limit problems which result from overpopulation and some possible solutions. The population will probably continue to grow bigger. It is clear that some measures have to be taken. We cannot foresee all the possible problems resulting from overpopulation. All we can do is to try to solve those, of which we are aware. It is necessary to do so, since the problem is likely to get worse.
Liliana Starosta