The Research of Human Genome Project

The research of Human Genome project
The completion of Human Genome Project took 13 years in total; it started in October 1990 and finished in 2003. This project has a controversial start, because many people didn??™t believe that the technology they have is advance enough to sequence the human DNA, not even a bacterium. However, the project is successful and it ended 2 years earlier than it was planed to. The first accomplishment is the rough draft of the human genome; it was completed in 2000, in February of the next year, the working draft is done,

The HGP has many purposes, it includes:
??? Identify all the genes in human DNA, which is around 20,000-25,000.
??? Find out the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs of human DNA,[1]
??? Store all the information found in a database.
??? Develop more advanced tools for analyzing data.
??? Bring the advanced technology to private sectors and use them.
??? Address issues regarding the HGP project in social, legal and ethical aspects.
Application of HGP
The technology of HGP has been applied in many fields, including Medicine, Forensic Identification, and energy production etc.
The result of the HGP can be used for diagnosis of genetic disorders. If a gene??™s location is known, and we also know that a mutation in the gene can cause a disorder, the diagnosis can be made, even for a fetus. PCR or gel electrophoresis can be used for analyzing the DNA.
Gene therapy is another application of HGP, this is mainly to insert normal genes into patients??™ cells, and once the gene is there, it can perform its normal function, so the disorder of the patient is cured.
Despite the project itself, the new capabilities from the HGP is also applied into creating new energy sources. Scientists started the Microbial Genome Program to sequence the genomes of bacteria to produce energy, ???environmental remediation???, or ???toxic waste reduction???.[2]
In the application for Forensic Identification, the technology is used to identify criminal of a crime. If a segment of hair, blood, or skin is found at the crime scene, the examiner will look at some spots of its DNA and compare it to the suspects??™ DNA to find out the real criminal. Some sites on the human DNA have patterns that vary greatly from person to person, these are the loci. They are the places where will be examined. Data of 13 of the loci are collected, because each of them are very different from person to person, it is almost impossible to have two people who have the same data for all the 13 loci, so the right person responsible for the crime can be found.

The impact of HGP on the world
the most important impact of the HGP is it brought changes to the medical field. Now scientists have got more information about the human genome, so they can solve many problems relating to gene. Some genetic disorders can be early detected if the patient??™s genome is carefully studied. Gene therapy can cure the diseases caused by genetic problems. Other things such as the development of Pharmacogenomics also helped many people to live a better life.
But the HGP also may has some potential threat to our society. The first one is if everyone??™s sequenced, some of them may be unable to get a job or insurance because their genome show that they are more likely to get some detrimental diease. Some people have a concern that if one day the human genome are fully studied and understood, parents may have the choice to ???design??? the genome of their children, so they can have an ideal children, and that must bring many trouble to the world. The most horrible concern is the finding of HGP may help create a substance that can kill all the people in one particular race, because according to their result, the genomes of people of different race do have certain difference.
We believe that the finding of genome of human will go on, and the result of it will bring more and more different kinds of consequences to us, but no one knows whether or not they are good, it can only be told by the time.

Bibliography
1. Human Genome Project Information. ???History of the Human Genome Project.??? Human Genome Project Information. 15 Nov. 2011
2. National Human Genome Research Institute. ???A Brief History of the Human Genome Project.??? National Human Genome Research Institute. 15 Nov. 2011
3. Roberts, Leslie. ???Controversial From the Start.??? Science. 15 Nov. 2011 < http://www.sciencemag.org/content/291/5507/1182.1.full >
4. Popular Issues, ???The Human Genome Project – What is its Purpose.??? Popular Issues. 15 Nov. 2011
5. Human Genome Project Information. ???DNA Forensics.??? Human Genome Project Information. 15 Nov. 2011
6. Human Genome Project Information. ???Potential Benefits of Human Genome Project Research.??? Human Genome Project Information. 15 Nov. 2011
7. Glencoe. Biology- The Dynamics of Life. America: McGraw-Hill, 2004.
8. charity_faith_2010. ???How can the human genome project be bad.??? Yahoo! Answers. 15 Nov. 2011

———————–
[1] ^ Popular Issues, ???The Human Genome Project – What is its Purpose???, http://www.allaboutpopularissues.org/the-human-genome-project-faq.htm ()
[2] ^ Human Genome Project Information, ???Potential Benefits of Human Genome Project Research???, http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/project/benefits.shtml (October, 2009)

The Republicans Did More to Lose the Spanish Civil War Than the Nationalists Did to Win It.

???The Republicans did more to lose the Spanish Civil War than the Nationalists did to win it??™ Discuss.

During the 1930??™s Spain??™s political divide grew until, to some, there seemed to be no other option than to seize power thus starting the civil war; in 1930 there was high levels of animosity between the left (socialist, communists and Republicans) and the right (Carlists/monarchist, CEDA, Falange) in the lead up to the 1933 election which was won by the National front (right wing) with the Radicals coming second a coalition between the parties did eventually follow in 1934, postponed 3 years as Zamora distrusted Gil Robles, this caused right wing anger however the inclusion of the CEDA was the signal for the Left wing to rebel; the failed 1934 revolution. It failed in Madrid as the Socialist UGT gave Zamora 24 hours notice, so of course the socialist leaders were arrested; in Barcelona the President Companys changed his political stance in order to stop the rebellion, however there was more success in Asturias where the rebellion managed to last for two weeks despite elite forces being called from Morocco. There was a lasting effect from the revolution attempt though; left wing anger increased as many of their supporters had been arrested or shot by the right wing just for supporting them. 1935 saw the collapse of the CEDA/ Radical coalition as a financial scandal was leaked, public distrust was so great that a general election was called for February 1936. The election ended in a left wing majority and immediately left wing prisoners from the 1934 failed revolution were released; this out raged the right wing parties who started to plot against the new government. The left wing were aware of the plots but thought that sacking and arresting leading generals would be enough to control any radical plans. The hot summer only mirrored the increasing political atmosphere; street fighting grew and many strikes were held (mainly by left wing groups) as the Left wing parties had failed to work together, despite uniting to win the election. The left wings meagre actions to quell right wing plotting eventually gave way to civil war, helped along by the murder of Calvo Soleto which allowed Franco to convince any hesitant right wingers that a revolution was necessary.

So as the revolution turned rapidly into a civil war the positions and territories looked like this; the right wing (Nationalists) control Morocco, Castile and the North, some of the south, their major assets are professional soldiers and foreign help. The Left (Republicans) control big cities (including Madrid), the centre of Spain and Catalonia, they only have trade union militias and fanatics, however their big asset is that they control the navy, meaning the Nationalist cannot transport soldiers form Morocco at the beginning of the war. The major problem for the Republicans is the ???Non-intervention Pact??™, signed by leading European powers stating that they would not get involved in the war, (the pact was ignored by Italy and Germany even though they had signed it however they went on to help the Nationalists) France and Britain stuck to the pact which meant, even thought they could legally buy weapons by international law, the Republicans were badly armed.

The Nationalists looked to be in a stronger position at the start of the war and they seemed to maintain it thorough-out; although they failed to capture Madrid in 1936 they did capture the Basques country and Asturias the next year. This gave them full control of the industrial north of Spain and so provided some way of paying for the help that they received from Hitler. Italy??™s help however was free (Mussolini sought glory in victory). A major advantage that the Nationalist did have was that they were united under one leader; Franco. This meant they were well organised and had clear aims and strategies. One of these strategies was to wear down the Republicans slowly and force them to suffer unnecessary casualties so that the Nationalist would be in a stronger position towards the end of the war.

The main problem for the Republicans was that they were divided; this caused a struggle for power ultimately won by the Communists much to the disapproval of the other left wing groups (they had eliminated any anarchist control by 1937 which of course angered the anarchists), as there was no clear leader there could be no clear tactics or strategies which led to ineffective and wasteful use of soldiers and weaponry. There were however many other problems like the inefficient system of collectivisation which was active at the beginning of the war, the Communist tactic of going out of their way just to kill left wing supporters and the major problem of the afore mentioned Non-intervention Pact. There were some positives for the Republicans though; they controlled some major cities, they had the support of the loyal Navy and there was some foreign help from the USSR (this was paid help however and started to dry up as money got tight in 1938).

Although the Republicans could have done more to win the war, the Nationalists could also have. It was foreign intervention that ultimately decided the victor and had the Non-intervention Pact favoured the Republicans they would have won. The Republicans loss was in some way down to the Communists struggle for power and intention to win the war for their own benefit, and the Nationalist win could perhaps be attributed to the leadership of Franco and his subservient army generals.

The Representation of Women in Victorian Texts

Compare and contrast the representation of women in two mid-Victorian texts. (no more than 1000 words).

Women in the Victorian age had no rights. They were prepared in their younger lives for one goal, which was that of marriage. Women were expected to be perfect wives and mothers and all aspects of their lives from financial to social were controlled by their husbands. Representation means to show what the image was of a Victorian woman, although this was rarely done by women themselves. They were usually represented by men and had no voice of their own. The class and status of a woman was significant in that she was expected to marry a man of the same or better class than herself. By analysing texts written by two authors during the mid-Victorian era it is possible to see the similarities and differences in how women were represented at this time.

The first extract written by John Ruskin is from Sesame and Lilies. It is about the role of men and women in society and the relationship they have to each other. He is stating that people should stop trying to determine who the greater sex is and realise that men need women and vice versa. Ruskin believes that by working together men and women can create a good home. To achieve this they need to stick to their roles both privately and publicly. A man??™s role is to provide and protect, whereas a woman??™s role is to keep the home in order.

Women, also have a duty to provide loving and nurturing to their husbands. Ruskin also thinks that women can put a stop to war. They should not accept the misery and bloodshed caused by war. It is a man??™s disposition to fight; women have a responsibility to persuade their men not to.

The second text The Subjection of Women written by John Stuart Mill is in favour for the rights of women. The main point of his extract is to put forward the idea of equality between the sexes. Mill is comparing a woman??™s role in marriage to be worse than a role of a slave. He claims that slaves in other countries have more rights than married women in England and Mill believes that this should change. He wants the law to alter so that a husband no longer owns his wife or any property that she inherits. He also states that it is not acceptable that a woman??™s father makes the decision on who she marries and he believes that a woman has the right to choose her future husband. As well as choosing her own husband, Mill believes that women should have the right to divorce if they are unhappy in their marriage or mistreated by their husbands. He writes that it is unfair that a woman can be forced to stay married unless she has the financial means to go through a court to get a divorce. Mill is putting forward his argument that women are their own people and should therefore be entitled to the same rights as men.

Ruskin??™s text represents women in an idyllic way. He states they could be ???queens??™ and have power, by accepting their roles to look after their husbands. His text describes women as the homemakers and men as the protectors. He writes that part of a woman??™s job is to keep her husband on the right moral path; in doing so women can put a stop to all the evil that is in the world.

Although the extract seems to be calling for societal change, the tone of the piece is suggesting that a woman??™s place is in the home and that she should accept this as her duty in life. The language Ruskin has used throughout the text has an idyllic tone to it ???the stars may be over her head; the glowworm in the night-cold grass may be the only fire at her foot; but home is wherever she is??? doesn??™t give a level-headed sense to what he is saying but a more wistful representation. On the whole the text seems to be giving advice to women that the power they desire can be gained by them knowing their proper place is in the home looking after their husbands needs.

Mills text on the other hand is stating that women should have equal rights to men. He uses much stronger language which is more direct. Use of words like ???force??™, ???sold??™, and ???obedience??™ enforce the reality that married women are treated as slaves. He uses more political language than Ruskin whose language is more artistic. Mill??™s text is portraying women as humans that are the same as men and therefore should have equal rights. He actually used his position as an MP to try and directly give women the right to vote and which would have resulted in them having more equal rights although, unfortunately he failed to secure the change.

There are obvious differences in the author??™s beliefs of how mid-Victorian women should be portrayed. Both texts were written by men during the same historical period. The target audience the texts were aimed at was probably men and women in middle class society. The texts could be seen as advice intended for women, although Ruskin??™s is stating how women should behave in a marriage, Mill??™s is suggesting to women that they should fight for their rights. I think Mill??™s text is the stronger of the two as he seemed to be writing it as a way forward for women.

He was a strong believer in women??™s rights and supported the suffrage movement. Ruskin??™s text is still a very male orientated view on what are specifically men??™s and women??™s roles in the home and in society. He isn??™t saying that women should have more rights but that they should know their place, which is that of home maker and supporter of their husbands. His view although unrealistic now was very popular during the mid-Victorian era. In conclusion the two writers are representing women in a very different way. Mill??™s text was ahead of his time, as it is now easier to relate to his views than it is to the views that Ruskin held.

Words: 1024

The Renissance Period

Marissa Norman
Period 4
February 12, 2010
The Renaissance Period
Introduction
The Renaissance Period began in Europe from 1485 to 1625 during that time it spread to England, France, Germany, Spain and several other countries. The term Renaissance literally means rebirth or reconstruction of civilization. It was considered a great cultural movement; a period of revival, renewal and growth (Renaissance period).
Rulers
During the Renaissance there were many different kings and queens including,
Henry the 7th, Henry the 8th, King Edward, Bloody Mary, Queen Elizabeth and King James the First.
Queen Elizabeth was the daughter of King Henry viii and Anne Boleyn, his second wife. She was born on September 7, 1533 at Greenwich Palace in London England. As a child Elizabeth was well educated as she was taught by all the famous scholars such as, William Grindal and Roger Asham. From an early age it was clear she was very gifted she loved to learn new languages and by the time she was an adult she could speak five different languages fluently (Heather Thomas, 1998). After many years of being looked down upon and forgotten Elizabeth finally became the Queen of England on Sunday January 15, 1559 at the age of 25 years old. During the time period of which she had the throne Elizabeth introduced new types of architecture such as the first theatre where she had Shakespeares plays played at. She greatly encouraged dancing, poetry, bouquets and most of all drama. She had also put an end to religious turmoil that had existed during Mary Is reign and published an Elizabethan Prayer Book that both Protestants and Catholics could accept. Queen Elizabeth was very dedicated to her county and making major improvements to it. Unfortunately she died March 24, 1603(Elizabeth 1).
Politics
There were many political changes during the Renaissance period for example, the old Feudal system of the middle ages turned into a more felixable and liberal class system. This was more noticeable in Italy than anywhere else especially in Florence where the old rich, new rich, Nobles and middle class lived. This new system of politics created great conflict between these social divisions but in the end all of their problems were resolved.
Significant events
The Bubonic Plague, also known as the Black Death was the single greatest killer during the Renaissance Period in Europe. The first severe outbreak was during in the 1340??™s killing between one- third and one- half of the population in some areas of the country. The plague went away for many years then came back in 1363 and returned every ten to twelve years until 1661. Some outbreaks were more severe than others and the only way you could avoid the disease was to leave the city or country. Unfortunately this was only an option for the wealthy and many died as a result (Grendler, 2004, p. 5). Another natural disaster occurred during this period called the Little Ice Age, lasting from the 14th to the 19th century, which was a period of unstable climate conditions with increased rains and floods and very cold winters. During the fall of 1314 the rain and cold began. The weather got exceptionally cold and very wet, growing seasons were shorter, Winters were longer and many died because of hunger, this weather persisted for five long years.(Wharton, 2009).
Scientists
Nicolas Copernicus was the first publish the theory that the earth was not the center of the universe and that it actually revolved around the sun. He also thought the earth rotated on its axis, which was the reason for the movement of the stars. Copernicus, a polish astronomer began to doubt Ptolemy??™s ideas when he realized the planets appeared to move backwards during his studies of the sky. Because of fear of being prosecuted from the religious and scientific communities he did not publish his theory until near the end of his life in 1543 (Nicolas Copernicus).
Another great scientist during this period of time was Galileo Galieli. Born February 15, 1564 in Pisa, Italy to Vincent Galilei who was a musician. Galieli was an Italian physicist, Mathematician, Astronomer and Philosopher who had a big impact on the scientific revolution (Galileo Galieli). In the year 1609 Galileo discovered the invention of the telescope in Holland, but later on he devolved a better more useful one which he used to study they skies(Netzley, 1998, p. 20). Galileo made many new discoveries including the moons of Jupiter and the phases of Venus. As a professor of astronomy at the University of Pisa in Italy he had to teach the accepted and most known theory which was that the sun and planets revolved around earth. Later on in his career at the University of Padua he was exposed to a new theory introduced by Copernicus that the earth and planets revolved around the sun. Because of Galileo??™s observations he was certain that Copernicus theory was correct (Netzley, 1998, p. 21). But because the Catholic Church believed that the sun revolved around the earth he was forced to take back what he believed was true. Galileo died a blind man in 1642, many believe because he was always looking at the sun for long periods of time. (Netzley, 1998, p. 22).
Sir Isaac Newton, born on Christmas day in 1643, is considered to be of the greatest scientists and mathematician that ever lived. When he was a boy he was more interested in making mechanical devices than in playing with kids his age or studying. He made a windmill that could grind wheat and corn, a water clock and a sundial in his spare time; many of his teachers thought of his as a poor student. He wanted to attend college but he did not have enough money to attend, so he enrolled at the lowest entry where he served other students by running errands and doing daily tasks for them. Unexpectedly the university shut down because of the Bubonic Plague but that didnt stop him, he went home and continued to study on his own. Within a short period of time he made three great discoveries; one day when he was in his garden he saw an apple fall on the ground and after many hours of thinking about why it had fell he finally he came to the conclusion that the same force that caused the apple to fall also kept the moon in orbit around the earth. This incident led to his discovery of the three basic laws of motion. Newton??™s second discovery had to do with light and its properties. He discovered that white light is made up of a spectrum of colors and when blended together they produce white light. He passed a beam of sunlight through a prism and discovered that the light is made up of different colors. And lastly his third great discovery had to do with mathematics when he developed a kind of math known today as calculus. He was just 24 years old at the time. At first Newton did not publish his results and by the time he decided to do so some one else had discovered the same thing as he had so he said this man stole his idea. About 200 years later it was decided that both men had come to the same conclusion without help from one another. He died in 1727(Galileo Galieli).
Key Literary figures
William Shakespeare was a widely known writer and author throughout the renaissance period. He was baptized on April 26, 1564 but unfortunately his birth date is unknown. He was an English poet and playwright, and was considered one of the greatest writers in the English language. Many of his works are known throughout the world; even still today his popularity remains. Shakespeare produced many of his known work between 1589 and 1613 which consist of 38 plays, 154 sonnets and two long narrative poems. He wrote many tragedies including Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet and Macbeth; a number of comedies such as The Merchant of Venice and A Midsummer Nights Dream; ten histories including Richard II, Richard III and Henry V. and in addition to all of that he wrote many popular plays that have been translated into several other languages and performed more than any other (William Shakespeare).
Key artists
Leonardo Da Vinci was born on April 15, 1452 in Vinci Italy. When Leonardo was just fifteen years old he joined the studio of Andrea Del Verrocchio in Florence, where he spent much of his time painting. Five years later he became a member of the guild, which was a painter??™s guild in Italy. About four years later he worked as an independent artist at his own studio in Florence Italy. Leonardo was and is reneowed primarily as a painter. Two of his works, The Mona Lisa and The Last Supper are the most famous portraits and religious paintings of all time. He is one of the best known figures of the Renaissance period; and is remembered for his achievements as a painter, sculptor, architect, scientist and engineer (Grendler, 2004, p. 10).
Donato di Niccolo di Betto Bardi also known as Donatello born in 1386 was a famous early renaissance Italian artist and sculptor from Florence Italy. Generally considered one of the greatest sculptors of all time and the founder of modern sculpture; in fact the techniques he used himself are still used by many sculptors even today. Just some of his masterpieces include St. Peter, St. Mark, Zuccone, St. George and the Dragon, St. John the Evangelist, Magdalen, and Angel with Tambourine. He died on December 13, 1466. (Donatello)
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino better known as Raphael was one of the greatest and most popular artists of all time. He was born on April 6, 1483 in Urbino, Italy. Like many Raphael learned a lot by looking at the works of other artists of his time such as Leonardo Da Vinci, Michelangelo and many others. Many of his works are found in the Apostolic Palace of The Vatican which includes the Madonna dell Granduca, The Small Cowper Madonna, The Alba Madonna, Stanza dell Incendio. And four large scale paintings which include the, Marriage of the Virgin, Sposalizio, The Crucified Christ with Virgin Mary and Saints and Angels (Raphael Sanzio).
Conclusion
In conclusion, the Renaissance period was the most important time period in the development of humanity because of the significant adjustments in exploration, science, government, the church, art, and writing.
References
???Donatello.??? Donatello. Retrieved February 3, 2010, from

???Elizabeth 1.???Elizabeth 1. Retrieved February 10, 2010, from
< http://www.yesnet.yk.ca/schools/projects/renaissance/elizabeth1.html>
Galielo Galieli.??? Galielo Galieli. Retrieved February 10, 2010, from

???Galielo Galieli.??? (February 10, 2010). Galileo Galieli. Retrieved February 10, 2010, from

Grendler, Paul F. (2004). The Renaissance. Princeton: NJ: Visual Education Corporation.
Netzley, Patricia D. (1998). Life during the Renaissance. San Diego, CA: Lucent Books
Inc.
???Nicolaus Copernicus.???(2005). Retrieved February 4, 2010, from

Heather Thomas. Queen Elizabeth Biography (1998). Retrieved February 10, 2010, from

???Raphael Sanzio.??? Raphael Sanzio. Retrieved February 4, 2010 from

“Renaissance Period.” Renaissance period. Retrieved February 2, 2010, from .
Sir Isaac Newton.??? Sir Isaac Newton. Retrieved February 10, 2010, from

Wharton, Helen B. The Little Ice Age (2009). Retrieved February 4, 2010, from

???William Shakespeare.???(February 11, 2010). William Shakespeare. Retrieved February 5, 2010, from

The Renaissance

The Renaissance was a giant milestone in history where there was a renewed interest in the Ancient Greeks and Romans. The word Renaissance comes from French origins. It means ???re-birth???. The Renaissance began in about 1400 and continued until around 1600. The Renaissance began in the cities of Northern Italy and then the rest of Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy for many reasons. These reasons included Geographical, Economical, Religious, Historical, Educational and Political reasons. Some of the reasons would have to include the fact that Italy did not develop a Feudal system, Italy was a series of independent states that were controlled by a city. Florence was one of Europes wealthiest countries. Cities of northern Italy prospered, trade and commerce increased and Florence was once of Europes wealthiest cities with double the amount of citizens as London. Also, the Medici family used their wealth to encourage the arts and also used their fortune to become rulers. The pope, the leader of the catholic church had his place in Rome. As a result to this, Religious leaders, missionaries and citizens made pilgrims to Rome. Many people travelled through northern Italy, to and from Rome. Although these people were religious, they helped spread the ideas of the Renaissance to the rest of Europe, These are a few of the core reasons for the Renaissance starting in Italy.
This period of history was a renewed interest in the art, architecture, literature and science of the ancient Greeks and Romans. Italians became inspired by Ancient Greek and Roman art, architecture, literature and science. These areas had been ignored during the middle ages. The citys rich merchants had money to spend on learning about literature, architecture, painting, sculpture, music, philosophy, medicine and science from the ancient Greeks and Romans. They also encouraged young sculptors, artists, scholars and writer to develop their talents. These were some of the many reasons for the Renaissance starting in Italy and all around the world.

The Renaissance Art

2010 Exploring the Renaissance ??“ Question #1

During the time period of the renaissance, there were thousands of amazing works of art. Renaissance as an art form began in Florence, Italy around the start of the 15th century. Depth perception, quality of light, religion (mostly catholic), architecture, perspective, color, imagery, realism, idealism, nudity, shadowing, paganism and myth were all major themes of art during the renaissance. (http://www.visual-arts-cork.com) Also very common at this time were sculptures and portraits. Portraits would be made of princes and important figures. These portraits were made to carefully examine the other person. (http://www.boisestate.edu) Sculptures were also very creative and unique from any other period of time. Although they resembled the ancient Greek and Roman sculptures, they were sculptures that had passion and thought. The most well known sculptor of the time was Donatello who lived from 1386-1466. (http://www.visual-arts-cork.com)
There were thousands of pieces of art from the Renaissance. Eight significant pieces of art from the period of the renaissance in order of 1-8 are: ???Moses??™ by Michelangelo as seen in appendix 1.1 (Graham-Dixon, 196), ???Birth of Venus??™ by Sandro Botticelli seen in appendix 1.2 (Graham-Dixon, 150), ???Federigo da Montefeltro??™ by Piero Della Franchesca as seen in appendix 1.3 (Graham-Dixon, 127), ???Expulsion of Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden??™ by Masaccio as seen in appendix 1.4 (Michael Batterberry, 74), ???Resurrection of the Dead??™ by Luca Signorelli as seen in appendix 1.5 (Graham-Dixon, 175), ???Self Portrait??™ by Leonardo da Vinci as seen in appendix 1.6 (Graham-Dixon, 168), ???Mona Lisa??™ by Leonardo da Vinci as seen in appendix 1.7 (Graham-Dixon, 167) and ???David??™ by Michelangelo as seen in appendix 1.8 (Graham-Dixon, 195).
The major themes of each individual picture are as follows: ???Moses??™ by Michelangelo (Graham-Dixon, 196) is a sculpture of the biblical figure Moses who along with God freed the Jews from slavery in Egypt. Moses is depicted in the sculpture as being a king sitting in his thrown with horns on his head, this is because of when Moses came down from Mount Sinai the old testament describes him as light reflecting onto his head in two separate beams, somewhat like horns. He is shown as a muscular man, which is just an assumption, but it??™s probably because of how he is a great hero and leader. This sculpture has to do with religion because it deals with one of the most extraordinary Jewish leaders of all time. His long flowing beard is seen as a thing of beauty. There is also shadowing behind this sculpture to give it a more powerful and bold effect. (Graham-Dixon, 197)
???Birth of Venus??™ by Sandro Botticelli is a painting title describes the birth of the goddess Venus, while what??™s happening is she is just stepping out of the sea, and is going to become a bride. She is portrayed as a thing of beauty, just as all birth should be. She has metallic gold hair symbolizing magnificence. Venus was born at sea, and this was her first step on to land so it is though she is at the point right before she loses her innocence. There are many bright colors that seem to represent happiness. There is also an angel looking down upon her to show that she is divine. (Graham-Dixon, 127)
???Federigo da Montefeltro??™ by Piero Della Franchesca (Graham-Dixon, 127) is about a one-eyed mercenary and was a Duke of Urbino. He was an commendable soldier and he lost the bridge of his nose and right eye in a battle. This portrait hides his disfigurement and shows him as a respectable soldier, and not someone who has been damaged at war. Although he was an ugly man he was treated greatly. In the background it is a ???birds eye view??™ on the city which somewhat means he is of great value. The city looks peaceful with lots of peaceful colors. There is shadowing of mountains for away also. (Graham-Dixon, 127)
The ???Expulsion of Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden??™ by Masaccio (Michael Batterberry, 74) is one of the most famous paintings from this period of time. It shows Adam and Eve being expelled from the Garden of Eden because of the first sin. The angel is shown as an angel of hell who is holding a sword for affect in this painting. The colors of this painting are all very dark, which symbolizes the mood of the picture; which is pain and suffering. There is also a lot of emotion in the faces of Adam and Eve. Shadowing is another element of this picture that is quite evident. The back of both of their legs are being shadowed, also their crotch region and the area in the distance behind them. (Michael Batterberry, 74)
???Resurrection of the Dead??™ by Luca Signorelli (Graham-Dixon, 175) was a painting that took three years to make. On the top there are muscular angels with large trumpets waking the dead. There are three different sections to this picture. In the middle but still above the ground there is hell, on the bottom there is earth, and on the top there is heaven which is saved for only some people, some cannot enter. The people in hell are seen as devilish and almost non-human with wings sort of like a bird. The people are a part of the devil and are seen as freakish characters, and that is how the devil is usually depicted in all of renaissance art. Another aspect of this picture is that the colors of heaven and earth are quite bright and elegant while the color of hell is an eerie light blue and black. This picture is a great example of a painting that deals with religious values.
???Self Portrait??™ by Leonardo da Vinci (Graham-Dixon, 168) is self-portrait of himself, which is very common at this time. This picture is significant because it gives the modern world one a good idea of what da Vinci looked like. The Picture is drawn in black and white just illustrating his face and beard. Da Vinci was a man of intellect and not a man of good looks. Leonardo seems sad or alone by the colors of this picture. This picture gives off a sad tone because of the little use of color and lack of smile on his face. He feels as though is life is ending and he cannot accomplish everything in life that he so wishes. Leonardo looks like a prime example of what G-d would look like if he were human now. There is superb shading all over this painting especially in the creases in his face, as well as blending of his for-head into the background.
???Mona Lisa??™ by Leonardo da Vinci (Graham-Dixon, 167) is the most famous painting of the renaissance and maybe the most famous painting of all time. The use of depth perception is superb as well as the colors in the background also her skin looks as though it is glowing. The ???sfumato technique??? is done here, which is quite common in renaissance art. There is a mysterious look to this painting from the shadowing around the side of her face and the mountains to the left of her. This remarkable painting is like no other painting ever made and that is why it is so intriguing. It is not a religious painting or of royalty but yet it is know all around the world because no one really knows what made Leonardo inspired to paint this picture. The ???Mona Lisa??™ picture is a mystery to the world, and that is why it is so well loved. (Graham-Dixon, 167)
Michelangelo Buonarroti made the most well know sculpture of all time entitled ???David??™ (Graham-Dixon, 195). This sculpture is of a muscular man who only had a sling and some stones to fight off Goliath. This sculpture helps remember a major part of history when David and his people of Israel defeat Goliath and his men of Palestine in an epic battle. David is seen as naked in this sculpture. Being naked in art during this time is often seen. Most of the time a hero is seen as a tall, handsome and muscular character although that probably is not a good interpretation of David??™s physical features. This sculpture of David of Israel is a reward from defeating Goliath in a religious conflict. Most renaissance art pieces during this time deal with religious themes.
Only 8 paintings could be analyzed although there were thousands of remarkable paintings made during this time that deserve to be analyzed also. The Renaissance is known as a time period where there was a great amount of growth intellectually and spiritually and as a result a lot of excellent artists expressed their emotions through paintings and sculptures.

Low Alkaline Phosphatasey

Low Alkaline Phosphatase

Alkaline phosphatase is a vital enzyme mainly manufactured by the liver. Bones, kidneys, intestines and the placenta of a pregnant woman also contribute to alkaline phosphatase quantities.

Common symptoms of alkaline phosphatase deficiency include fatigue, shortness of breath, cold intolerance, constipation, rapid heart rate and impressive weight-loss. Consuming certain foods can help increase alkaline phosphatase levels.

Normal Alkaline Phosphatase Level

Normal levels vary between children and adults and also between different laboratories. Ask your doctor for specific details regarding your alkaline phosphatase level.

The normal level in children is generally less than 350 U/L.
The levels range from 25-100 U/L in adults.
Causes of Low Alkaline Phosphatase

1. Malnutrition

Improper diet and poor nutritional choices which lead to a deficiency of vitamin B6, folic acid, vitamin c, phosphorous and zinc all cause alkaline phosphatase to plummet.

2. Hypophosphatasia

This rare genetic disorder negatively impacts the development of bones and teeth. The depletion of phosphate from the body softens and weakens bones causing physical deformity from the abnormal bone growth and development. Severe cases lead to respiratory disorders as well.

3. Other Causes

Other causes can result in low alkaline phosphatase including:

Hypothyroidism and impaired parathyroid glands
B12 deficiency (Pernicious anemia)
Aplastic anemia
Wilson™s disease (abnormal copper metabolism)
Children with achondroplasia and cretinism
CML “ Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
Menopause and anemia
Treatment of Low Alkaline Phosphatase

The overall approach to treatment first focuses on determining the underlying cause. A low alkaline phosphatase is often detected during routine blood tests. A physician will start by evaluating the diet and correcting any deficiencies present and consider adding supplements after discussion. Common vitamin deficiencies such as B6, B12 and vitamin C and folic acid should be corrected by taking quality supplements. Anemia can be improved with the addition of iron supplements.

Below are common foods to increase alkaline phosphatase level:

1. Phosphorus

This key element is only second to calcium in terms of our body™s requirement. It is vital for creating alkaline phosphatase and important in processes such as energy production, bone formation, DNA production and absorption of calcium. Health foods such as lentils, salmon, halibut, chicken, turkey, eggs, yogurt and nuts such as almonds are all excellent sources.

2. Healthy fats

Alkaline phosphatase plays a role in the digestion and absorption of dietary fats from the intestines. Higher levels of alkaline phosphatase have been noted in those who consume cod liver oil, coconut and corn oil.

3. Zinc

Zinc supplementation can boost production of alkaline phosphatase in the body. Healthy bone formation, skin integrity and immune system function all rely on zinc. Excellent sources include pumpkin seeds, ginger root, pecans, peas, oysters and Brazil nuts. Maximum daily supplemental intake of zinc should not exceed 30 mg per day.

4. Vitamin B12

Pernicious anemia is linked to low alkaline phosphatase levels and B12 deficiency is at the heart of the problem. Vitamin B12 is plentiful in fish, eggs, dairy products and most meats. Vegetables from the sea are rich in B12, while vegans and vegetarians should consider supplementing with 2 mcg of vitamin B12 a day. An under the tongue (sublingual) tablet is available and rapidly absorbed.

5. Vitamin A

This anti-oxidant vitamin stimulates alkaline phosphatase production form the bone cells and intestinal tract. Sources of high vitamin A include chili peppers, dandelion roots, carrots, apricots, kale, sweet potatoes, spinach and liver from ox, chicken and calf. Fish oils such as salmon oil and cod liver oil are rich in vitamin A. Use caution when taking vitamin A supplements as this vitamin is stored in the fat cells of our body and excess supplementation can lead to side effects.

The Removalists

The Removalists
The removalists deals with a lot of ideas/themes/issues. David Williamson shows the Australian population for the first time in a play and demonstrates symbolic characteristics to the Australian society. David Williamson looks at the Australian society through the themes, characters and concerns. E.g, The removalist represents the average working man with slang English and not very well educated.
Violence
There are many different acts of violence throughout the play. The first is when Fiona Carter and her sister Kate arrive at the police station. The two police officers Simmonds and the new recruit Ross interview the ladies asking what??™s wrong. They later find out that Fiona has been bashed by her husband Kenny, this is an act of domestic violence. Simmonds also abuses his use of power and authority at Kenny??™s house beating him up severely on many occasions.
Characters
Simmonds- He is a chauvinistic maniac who threatens everybody and abuses his right of power and authority. Simmonds has many conflicts with characters such as Ross in the beginning and talking about his father and Kate calling her a prostitute.
Ross- He is just an average guy eager to start his new job as a police recruit. Then he meets Simmonds who is the start to him losing control and eventually beating up Kenny to his death.
Kate- She is very proper and was brought up in a high class family. Kate looks down on everyone as if they are not good enough and she is better than everyone else. She is really a hypocrite as Kenny discovers when he got her drunk one night.
Fiona- She is a very quiet character. She gets told what to do by her sister Kate, her husband Kenny and Simmonds; she makes no decisions for herself. Fiona is very insecure about her self
Kenny- He is the typical working class Australian larrikin. The whole play is basically about Kenny??™s treatment of Fiona and how he bashed her. Kenny pushes every characters to the edge and gets yelled at by Kate bashed by Simmonds and eventually killed by Ross.
The Removalist- He is called to remove Fiona??™s belongings from Kenny??™s apartment. He plays the typical working class man just wanting to get down to business finish his job and move on to the next one.
The title ???the removalists??? is very smartly chosen as many things in this play are ???removed??? for example Fiona is removed from Kenny??™s life, Fiona??™s furniture is removed from her apartment and in the end Ross removes Kenny from the play by killing him.

The Relavance of Humaitarian Intervention

In my opinion, during a crisis situation there are three concepts that interplay to result in the atrocities: conflict, violence and war. Conflict being an ongoing struggle between two or more parties may lead to violence which can either be direct by inflicting physical pain or injury, or it may be structural via oppression, exploitation or domination. An ongoing systemic political violence between these parties is what we refer to as a war. An intervention is vital in every stage; as a matter of fact intervening during a conflict situation between parties can prevent the potential inhumanity and savagery that are the constituents of wars and in some cases genocide. Because of the anarchic system of the international community and the sovereign rights of states, methods of intervention have to be carefully structured so as not to breach the sovereign rights of states and aggravate conflict situations. It is normal to expect states to resolve conflicts between themselves and to prevent and control violence. However when violence escalates to a point where neither the sovereign states nor the parties involved can control the atrocities and the inhumane acts to innocent civilians, then an immediate intervention from the international community is highly vital. The United Nations (Security Council) should come to a quick and concise decision on how to protect the right of the civilians and to resolve the conflicts that lead to the violence, bringing justice where needed. An intervention should never be debated in situations where the lives and livelihoods of fellow humans are at stake. Even though an intervention does come with its limitations , the end goal of saving lives is of a greater importance when it comes the question; is humanitarian intervention relevant in resolving violent disputes

To begin with I would like to use an example from personal experience, where the intervention of a coalition of neighboring countries brought hope to many victims including myself and saved the lives of and livelihoods of a great many civilians. It is on this event that I base my strong support of humanitarian intervention. The 11 year civil war in Sierra Leone had always been under the watchful eye of the international community; however few efforts were made to prevent what later on became one of the most brutal civil wars of the 20th century with a notorious signature of civilian mutilation. The war in Sierra Leone was allegedly supported by other members of the international community. Weapons were made available to the rebels via diamond smuggling, arms were purchased in Ukraine and smuggled through Libya, Burkina Faso, and Liberia and eventually made available to the RUF in Sierra Leone. After years of ongoing conflicts between the government and rebel group (revolutionary united front) led by Foday Sankoh with supports from Charles Taylor, a war load and dictator in neighboring Liberia war finally broke out in the capital. On May 1997 when Sierra Leone??™s army (Armed Forces Revolutionary Council-AFRC) led by Major Johnny Paul Koroma invited the RUF to take over the capital and overthrow the government, the citizens of Sierra Leone were at the mercy of the rebels and the then corrupt army, with no one to defend their basic human rights. The Economic Community of West African States Military Observer Group (ECOMOG) had to make an emergency intervention to save the lives of civilians in the absence of a proper functioning army, pushing the AFRC/RUF outside of the capital and reinstating the president. A defeated and demoralized RUF then began a systematic campaign of murder, mutilation and kidnapping, referred to as “Operation No Living Thing”, terrorizing the countryside. The AFRC/RUF infiltrated forces into Freetown catching ECOMOG by surprise, resulting in another brutal battle in the capital on January 6th 1999 which was later known as ???the siege of Freetown???. The ECOMOG alone had difficulty fighting off the RUF the second time around since they were taken by surprise and unprepared, this resulted in a death toll close to seventy five thousand and more than one third of the country??™s population was displaced (Larry J. Woods and Colonel Timothy R. Reese, Military Interventions in Sierra Leone: Lessons From a Failed State pp 27). After a fierce battle, in which civilians and ECOMOG alike lost lives, the ECOMOG did succeed in reinstating the government under the leadership of president Kabba. This scenario is one that testifies to the vitality of an intervention in the protection and reestablishment of human rights. However in my opinion since the early stages of the conflict efforts should have been made to resolve disputes and negotiate. The international community should have put more pressures on the Sierra Leone government to control the situation before it escalated to the disaster it later on became. Despite the high death toll and outstanding infrastructural damage to the country, it is safe to assume that without the presence of the ECOMOG and the later involvement of British troops and UN peace keepers, it would have been much worse.

In the case of Sierra Leone, the intervention did occur in a relatively acceptable period of time and even though to this day there have been allegations formed against ECOMOG about their operations; some of which involved the reckless killing of civilians who they ???thought??? were rebels, the ECOMOG??™s involvement in the Sierra Leone war did help save the lives of many. In the Rwandan genocide where the international community failed to deliver a proper intervention at the appropriate time, the extent of the damages to human lives was astounding. It was the fastest, most efficient killing spree of the twentieth century.According to background on the events of the genocide given Sean D. Murphy ???Humaitarian Intervention: The United Nations in an Evolving World Order???, in the early 1990s, Hutu extremists within Rwanda??™s political elite blamed the entire Tutsi minority population for the country??™s increasing social, economic, and political pressures. Tutsi civilians were also accused of supporting a Tutsi-dominated rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF). On April 6, 1994, after the killing of President Habyarimana, a Hutu, violence began almost immediately. Under the cover of war, Hutu extremists launched their plans to destroy the entire Tutsi civilian population sending out radio messages urging the killings of Tutsi??™s, turning neighbors against each other. By the end of April more than 200,000 thousand were reported dead and atrocities only became more brutal. One such gruesome scenario mentioned was the killings of 500 Tutsi??™s who had taken refuge in a church compound were shot or hacked to death by Hutu soldiers within a two day period. Rwandan government officials at some point reported that 10,000 bodies where floating down the Kagera River into Lake Victoria. Throughout this period a humanitarian intervention was still not decided upon. As a matter of fact the United States referred to the high death tolls as war time casualties (Powers Samantha, Bystanders to Genocide). The role of the US was further analyzed within the article; the united states is still held accountable for not only refusing to intervene but in fact making successful efforts to remove UN troops from Rwanda, working to block the authorization of UN reinforcements, refusing to use technology available to stop critical radio broadcasts that were an instrument in the coordination and perpetuation of the genocide and finally the fact that the American government refused to accept the events as a genocide but rather as ???acts of genocide??? so as to avoid moral obligations. These allegations against a ???superpower??™ such as the United states with respect to the negligence of their moral responsibility is much worse than any allegations made on breaching the sovereign rights of Iraq . This scenario leaves me with the question of how a country that takes pride in being the ultimate example and perpetuator of democracy stand by and watch close to a million people killed in a genocide that could have been easily thwarted. Clinton??™s lack of interest in the ongoing atrocities in Rwanda was supposedly a lack of knowledge of the true events of the war. Samantha powers reports further that during the first three days of the killings U.S. diplomats in Rwanda reported back to Washington that well-armed extremists were intent on eliminating the Tutsi entirely and the American press spoke of the door-to-door hunting of unarmed civilians. By the end of the second week informed nongovernmental groups had already begun to call on the Administration to use the term “genocide,”. With all this knowledge not to speak of the technological capabilities of the US to seek to understand a situation, how then can their actions or lack there of be based on ???not knowing the full extent??? of the situation. Sadam Hussein was found in deep hiding in Iraq, and civilians were being killed in the open in Rwanda with an average of 8000 deaths a day, what differences between these two scenarios prompted a lack of a humanitarian intervention in the latter and a coalition of forces present in the former. To this day the consequences or outright disapproval of the Iraq war faced by the government of the United States can never surpass that stained identity of world power and leader in democracy and human rights protection and liberation. The international community at large is to be held responsible alongside the UN for failing to organize resources and launching an intervention sooner so save the lives of so many innocent civilians. This is a type of mistake that the world at large must never allow to happen again.

However like all situations, the notion of humanitarian intervention can be misused for self interests purposes. This draws light to the section on ???The intervention Quandary??? mentioned by Richard Falk in his article, Humanitarian Intervention: Imperatives and Problems. Richard talks of ???the yellow light of caution??? being more appropriate than the green light which was a go ahead for any interventionist approach with humanitarian aim and the red light which opposed any intervention whatsoever in the name of protection of the sovereignty of states. Indeed such a precaution is necessary so as to impede invasions that are solely self interest driven but masked with concerns for human rights. This forethought is necessary to prevent interventions that are in fact recipe for greater disasters from taking place; such as the invasion of Iraq by a coalition of forces led by the United States. Why this is a good example for the definite pre meditation of humanitarian intervention ???yellow light???, is because the initial reasons for the intervention was not exactly synonymous with the eventual cause of the invasion. At first it was more of an offensive approach, in search for weapons of mass destruction (WMD)and terrorist activities within Iraq after September 11th. Despite the confirmation of UN observers on the lack of any signs of WMDs in Iraq, after months of conflict and rising death tolls on both sides the invasion took a more humanitarian turn, that is liberating the Iraqi??™s from a rule of tyranny and rebuilding its infrastructures to enable proper growth and development of the country. Such unclear motives are reason enough for the UN and the international community to take precautions in satisfying any humanitarian mission. Another example highlighted by Falk in his article that was also criticized was the invasion of Uganda by Tanzania in 1979 to ???relieve??? the Ugandan people from a brutal dictator; Idi Amin. . Even though Tanzania??™s claim for attacking Uganda was based on human rights violations by the then dictator; this reason was not initially why they invaded. Their initial claim was for self defense, which was not exactly apparent since Idi Amin had voluntarily withdrawn his troops from Tanzania and was no longer of threat to its citizens and their livelihoods (Sean D. Murphy, Humanitarian Intervention: the United Nations in an evolving world order 1996 pp 107). Both scenarios are similar in the sense of unclear motives and the apparent breach of sovereign rights. However research done did indicate that Idi Amin leadership meant constant suffering of civilians and his removal from power did result in a positive improvement in the country??™s fundamental infrastructures such as socio economic education etc. this does not an approval of the invasion but a highlight in the good that comes from stepping in and liberating people otherwise subjected to terror. Such precautions to be made taken must never elude the fact that the longer the international community debates on an intervention the more atrocities are committed the more people suffer. We must not let these instances cloud our judgments about the benefits of the citizens of the countries after the intervention. in the case of genocide that occurred in Rwanda, which claimed the lives of almost a million Tutsi??™s, the validity of intervention should not have been in question; ???Imagine for one moment that, in those dark days and hours leading up to the genocide, there had been a coalition of states ready and willing to act in defense of the Tutsi population, but the council had refused or delayed giving the green light. Should such a coalition then have stood idly by while the horror unfolded??? statement by Kofi Annan in his article ???Two Concepts of Sovereignty??? published in September 1999 in The Economist. This statement is evidence of an incident that would forever be present on the consciences of those who believe in the preservation of the rights of humanity and had the power to end the atrocities, yet stood by in the name of caution as the horror unfolded. In my opinion, when faced with the slightest possibility of massive crimes against human right the so called ???yellow light??? should be switched to green almost instantly. It is better to have intervened and later realize that it would not have been necessary than to delay and have a devastating result.

It is not apparent that every circumstance that poses a threat to the lives and livelihood of citizens of a country requires a forceful intervention but there are several forms of intervention that can go tremendous distances in helping those in need. Annan further outlines ; ???On the one hand, is it legitimate for a regional organization to use force without a UN mandate On the other hand, is it permissible to let gross and systematic violations of human rights, with grave humanitarian consequences, continue unchecked??? The questions raised by the former UN secretary-general are ones that require great debate and with the bottom-line of protecting and restoring the basic rights of humanity by all means. It is safe to say that instead of condemning an intervention method, more efforts should be geared towards finding and using other forms of intervention that do not stand the risk of igniting further disputes.
It is a moral responsibility to always protect the rights of the helpless. It is this very connection that makes us human, for arguments sake: if there were to be an ???alien invasion??? humans would have to stand up together as one unit to ensure survival and save humanity. So it does not matter whether it is Angola, Kossovo, Sierra Leone , Iraq, or Rwanda the lives and livelihoods of fellow humans should never be taken for granted, and intervention is by all means significant and as such a moral responsibility to all.

Bibliography:
* Sean D. Murphy, Humanitarian Intervention: The United Nations in an evolving world order (university of Pennsylvania press 1996) pp 107
* Kofi A. Annan, ???Two Concepts Of Sovereignty??? (The Economist 1999)
* Samantha Power, ???Bystanders to Genocide??? (The Atlantic 2001)pp 1
* Richard Falk. ???Humanitarian Intervention: Elite and Critical Perspectives??? (centre for dialogue, winter/ spring 2005) pp 37-49 reprinted, Human Rights In The World Community: Issues in Action, ???Humanitarian Intervention: Imperatives and Problematics??? Richard Falk edited by Richard Piere Claud, Burns. H. Weston ,Third edition (university of Pennsylvania 2006) pp 401-411. Also reprinted in POLI 205: introduction to international relations, (course pack), edited by Julie Norman. 31, 36-37
* Larry J. Woods and Colonel Timothy R. Reese, Military Interventions in Sierra Leone: Lessons From a Failed State pp 27 (online journal)

The Relationship Between Schizophrenia and Cannabis

The term Schizophrenia stemming from the combination of the German schizien, meaning ???to split,??? and phren from the Greek root meaning ???mind??? the affliction is believed to be categorized by general primarily by disorganized thought methodology, lack of harmonious link between thought and emotion, and an autistic preoccupation propagating a separation from reality. The clinical view of Schizophrenia classify symptoms according to the current DSM -IV TR delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized and catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms synergistically culminating to from the psychotic disorder. Recent publications of clinical trials implicate validity of a negative correlation between cannabis use and Schizophrenia, suggesting cannabis use promotes symptom depression in schizophrenics. On the contrary, conflicting publications perpetuate the premise of cannabis use as predisposition to latter development of schizophrenia.
The relationship between cannabis and schizophrenia is of interest from two perspectives. First, studies based on the self-report of the subjective effects suggest cannabis use in the presence of Schizophrenia mediates symptoms and promotes normalized functionality. Second, cannabis is one of the most used or misused substances with a prevalence of up to 20 percent of people within the age range 14 -21 have used cannabis regularly or heavily. According to the consensus of the analysis 35 studies by Dr. Stanley Zammit in the School of Medicine??™s Department of the Psychological Medicine and the colleagues at the University of Bristol, Cambridge and Imperial College the relationship assessment promoted a consistent association to a casual relationship of psychotic disorders. Which may include but it not certainly limited to schizophrenia. A publication of the exploration of cannabis and Schizophrenia entitled Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Effects in Schizophrenia: Implications for Cognition Psychosis and Addiction concluded short-term magnification in symptomatic behavior observed in Schizophrenics intravenously administered doses of ? -9-Tetrahydrocannabinol , the active reagent in cannabis, to promote blood levels observed with conventional usage. In light of convoluted reports of a casual relationship between the development of psychotic disorders that may include schizophrenia and reports demonstrating cannabis as antagonistic agent in respect to symptomatology, more research is required to discern they ???exact??? nature of the relationship.
Clinical explorations encompassing the effects of moderate cannabis use and the subsequent nature of the correlation with Schizophrenia present a conundrum of sorts for audiences. Publications concerning the relationship between cannabis and Schizophrenia range from implications of use as predisposition to no conclusive epidemiologic congruence to validate cannabis use a pertinent cofactor in Schizophrenia. A priori analysis of several publications arrival at that the relationship of cannabis is of a detrimental nature as the active agent is associated with transient exacerbation in core psychosis and cognitive shortfalls in schizophrenia. Although the short-lived the magnification of the psychological break and ability construct thought and exhibit behavior rationally warrants the labeling of the relationship between cannabis use and schizophrenia as ???detrimental.???